Chinese philosopher and founder of the Confusion religion. Believed moral perfection only comes from learning
Waring States Period
a period before the unification of China, characterized by constant warfare, betrayal and corruption; those who had power were not virtuous
a collection of major scriptural texts from the Confucian tradition compiled by his students
Rectification of Names
Encapsulates the social Dao (12.1 Analects) "sons true sons" - one must be respectful of his superiors, abiding by the the rules of comportment in everyday life and the hierarchy of power and virtue. Citizens live according to their titles and power and virtue are married in an idealized hierarchy.
a term created by Confucius to describe his ideal human. Often translated as "gentleman" or "superior person," it refers to well-educated ministers and rulers that have attained moral perfection
The Great Learning
a supplemental text from the book of rites and the most succinct expression of the Confucian project; education of the individual as appropriate to his place in society-leaders lead because they are moral and virtuous
Mandate of Heaven
foundational verse of the analects that is concerned with legitimizing a ruler. It postulates that heaven would bless the authority of a just ruler and be displeased with a despotic ruler: withdraw its mandate. It explains the constant rise and fall of dynastic houses
History, Poems/Odes, Spring and Autumn Annals, Rites (court customs, ancestor worship, social etiquette), Change; composes the core curriculum for aspiring junzas
humaness, righteousness, rites/rituals, knowledge, loyalty and filial piety
Paragons of Filial Piety
An exemplary text wherein a loyalty, gratitude and faithfulness to ones parents is emphasized. The tales are retold to instill the value in youth. Tanza's parents became ill and needed deer's milk, disguised himself as a deer and hunter was greatly moved by devotion
Chinese Daoist philosopher; taught that governments were of secondary importance and only perverted the individual. Recommended that people harmonize themselves with nature and extract its vitality and strength
Tao Te Ching
attributed to Laozi with the central Daoist values
yin and yang are codependent, yet opposing forces used to describe all manners of reality; yin is black feminine, soft, supple; yang is white, stiff and hard.
manifest and umanifest Dao
manifests in nature and change is tracked according to oppposites; the elements (wind, water, ect). Unmanifest is empty of meaning, just a convention
"non-doing" or not imposing a fixed view of what reality should be; a willingness to accept circumstances as the come without looking for preconceived notions or patterns in nature. "fortune, misfortune, how can we know?"
That which is fixed cannot harmonize itself with the dao-tendency to look for explanation/consistency in a changing world. Need to be empty of judgements
Yin, the passive, feminine, earthly component of the universe, characterized by darkness and weakness; complements yang.
that which is itself/natural is the most useful - junza chieseled by social norms and inserted into an idealized hierarchy. One must live according to their own means and standards
water, representative of yin, is weak and without structural integrity but wields the most power. C's live in a yang dominated reality and are ignorant to the power of yin
collection of parables used to satirize the Confucians and their fixed perspectives and their inability to comprehend the Dao; Quail skeptical of Pengbird (Dao) because he needs empirical evidence, Frog doesn't believe sea turtle's description of the sea (dao) they are unable to deconstruct the ego and experience the dao
Usefulness of Uselessness
Parable of the oak tree and the carpenter; carpenter believes tree is only useful is manipulated in an artifact - tree is gnarled yet useful to itself. group of local magistrates try to entice Chuang-Tzu with material possessions (dried turtle in golden box) not useful because it is encased "id rather be dragging my tale in the mud." once it is made artificial it becomes an object of worship
Butcher Ding (Cook Ting)
the effortlessly spontaneous way in which Cook Ding is described cutting up the ox is an example of wu-wei or "non doing" he did not have a systemic method to his craft and evaluated each ox individually, not looking for specific results each time. he was empty of a rigid perspective
ideal figure in daoism, removed from society and deep within the lanscape; "skin like ice and snow" pure yin, "gentle and shy like a young girl" doesnt eat grain because it requires complex agriculture
Rules in Chinese philosophy that govern spatial arrangement and orientation in relation to patterns of yin and yang and the flow of cosmic energy.
"Life Breath" or vital energy
Tai ji practice
circulating yin and yang chi flow by mimicking the movement of chi in nature different postures, exploit natural flow of power
the ingestion of certain herbs, plants, roots, ect to reset balance of yin/yang chi flow
Master Yin Shih
points of chi flow in the body- illness is caused by stagnations of chi flow
"secret of forgetfulness"
explained by master yin shih as the way to meditate successfully and achieve centrality with the dao, one cannot force results, when mind and objects are forgotten (distance yourself from the dao) meditation must be natural
the center where chi is processed in the body, the abdomen where you capture the chi energy and gestate the fetus, making the new you, the spiritual source for your immortal self, take yin and yang energy from the cosmos and redefine it. represents pure potentiality/uncorrupted
yin is the element metal and yang is wood; the yellow women (earth) is the true intention that can bring together opposites and unite yin and yang. without her yin will sever yang and they will not act as complementary pairs
Master Wang, Mr. Ma and Ms. Sun
craving drains generative energy. "look but do not see, hear but do not listen" to eradicate 4 obstacles liquor, sexual desire, riches and bad temper one must cultivate the heart-cannot mold the dao according to a conception of what it is.
union of male and female in the true stove where internal energy in its 3 forms (vital, generative and spiritual) is stored. The fetus is the spirit and will ascend into the Heavens and become immortal