APUSH Semester 1 Exam

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1st Great Awakening

People's faith and piety were waning until this rousing religious revival occurred in the 1730s and 1740s. It was first started in Northampton, MA by Jonathan Edwards. In his fire and brimstone sermons, Edwards proclaimed with a burning righteousness the folly of believing in salvation through good works and affirmed the need for complete dependence on God's grace. One of his famous sermons was called "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God." Later, George Whitefield, a great orator, continued to revolutionize the spiritual lives of the colonists. They heaped abuse on sinners and shook enormous audiences with emotional appeals. Many people became converts. Orthodox clergymen, "old lights," were skeptical of all of this. "New light" ministers defended it. Lasting effects of this event: emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality; more denominations formed; fresh wave of missionary work; new centers of learning were formed. It united the American people.

2nd Great Awakening

This event, beginning in about 1800, was a boiling reaction against the growing liberalism in religion. Beginning on the southern frontier, a fresh wave of roaring revivals occurred and huge groups of people met to hear itinerant preachers speak at "camp meetings." Results of the event included countless converts (especially by Methodists and Baptists), numerous new sects (which reflected divisions based on social issues), the feminization of religion, a variety of humanitarian reforms (including abolition, temperance, and more humane prisons), a desire for higher education, and evangelicalism. Two major preachers involved in it were Peter Cartwright and Charles Grandison Finney. Middle-class women were the first and most fervent enthusiasts of the event. Before this event, old orthodoxy had been softened, and ideas such as Deism and Unitarianism were prominent.

Adams-Onis Treaty

In 1819, this was an ultimatum from the U.S. to the Spanish, regarding Florida. Spain agreed to renounce its claims to western Florida, and it gave eastern Florida to the U.S. In return, the U.S. ceded Texas and paid $5 million of Spanish debt to American citizens. It also set the western boundary of the Louisiana Purchase, from the mouth of the Sabine River, along the Red River and Arkansas River, until it cuts off at the 42nd parallel.

Alexander Hamilton

This man, an admirer of all things British, was the main member of the Federalist political party, the Secretary of Treasury under the Washington administration, and a main author of The Federalist Papers. He saved the Convention in Annapolis from complete failure by engineering the adoption of his report, which called upon Congress to summon a convention to meet in Philadelphia the next year to bolster the Articles of Confederation. He was an advocate of a super-powerful central government. Many of his followers were merchants, manufacturers, and shippers along the Atlantic seaboard. His economic plan was to establish and maintain public credit so more people (both in the US and abroad) would have confidence in the government, to strengthen and stabilize the central government by establishing national solidarity among commercial and business interests (benefitting the wealthy), and to fund both state and national debt at par (the national government would take care of state debt). He proposed the idea of a Bank of the United States, believing that what the Constitution did not forbade it permitted (a "loose" interpretation of the document). He resigned from the treasury in 1795 when Adams became president, because he hated Adams. The high excise tax he put on whiskey caused the Whiskey Rebellion.

Alien and Sedition Acts

The Federalists created these laws in 1798, capitalizing on the anti-French frenzy to muffle or minimize their Jeffersonian foes. The first of the laws was aimed at European immigrants, who were usually poor and therefore scorned by the aristocratic Federalist Party. The law erected a barrier that raised residence requirements for aliens who desired to become citizens from a tolerable five years to an intolerable fourteen. This policy violated the traditional American policy of open-door hospitality and speedy assimilation, but it wasn't really enforced. The second of the laws was a direct slap at the freedom of speech and freedom of press. It said that anyone who impeded the policies of the government or falsely defamed its officials would be liable to a heavy fine and imprisonment. Many outspoken Jeffersonian editors were indicted under this act and brought to trial. However, the law was written to expire in 1801.

1st Amendment

This amendment guarantees freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, petition

2nd Amendment

This amendment guarantees the right to bear arms

3rd Amendment

This amendment prohibits quartering of troops in private homes

4th Amendment

This amendment protects people from unreasonable searches and seizures

5th Amendment

This amendment guarantees due process for accused persons

6th Amendment

This amendment guarantees the right to a speedy and public trial in the state where the offense was committed

7th Amendment

This amendment guarantees the right to trial by jury for civil cases tried in federal courts

8th Amendment

This amendment prohibits excessive bail and cruel or unusual punishment

9th Amendment

This amendment provides that people have rights beyond those stated in the Constitution

10th Amendment

This amendment provides that powers not granted to the national government belong to the states and to the people

13th Amendment

This amendment abolished slavery in the United States.

14th Amendment

This amendment was proposed and approved by Congress in June 1866. It 1) conferred civil rights, including citizenship but excluding the franchise, on the freedmen, 2) reduced proportionately the representation of a state in Congress and in the Electoral College if it denied blacks the ballot, 3) disqualified from federal and state office former Confederates, 4) guaranteed the federal debt, while repudiating all Confederate debts. They were forced to ratify it before re-joining the Union.

15th Amendment

This amendment proposed to prohibit denial of the vote on the basis of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude."

American Revolution

This was the war of American independence fought between America and England from 1775 to 1783. Underlying causes were boosted colonial confidence from the French and Indian War, the fact that the British needed colonists to help pay for the French and Indian War, the new idea of republicanism, the Sugar Act, the Quartering Act, the Stamp Tax, the Townshend Acts, the Declaratory Act, the Boston "Massacre," the Boston Tea Party, the "Intolerable Acts," the Quebec Act, and the meeting of the Continental Congress. The immediate cause of the war was when the British commander in Boston sent a detachment of troops to Lexington and Concord to seize stores of colonial gunpowder and to capture rebel ringleaders, and shots ended up being fired when the Minute Men refused to disperse rapidly enough. Important events and turning points in the war were the meeting of the Second Continental Congress, the capture of the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point, the seizure of Bunker Hill by the colonists, the rejection of the Olive Branch Petition, the hiring of Hessian mercenaries by the British, the burning of Falmouth, ME, and Norfolk, VA, by the British, the British evacuation of Boston, the publication of "Common Sense," the writing of the Declaration of Independence, and the American victories at Trenton and Princeton, the surrender of British general Burgoyne to American general Horatio Gates at Saratoga, and the colonist victory at Yorktown (with French aid) that resulted in Cornwallis's surrender. The ending event was the signing of the Treaty of Paris. It recognized the independence of the United States and granted generous boundaries, and the Americans agreed to discontinue the further persecution of Loyalists, restore confiscated Loyalist land, and pay back debt to British creditors. Short-term results of the war were that the Articles of Confederation came into effect and foreign relations were strained. Long-term results were that the U.S. was given a splendid territorial birthright and a priceless heritage of freedom, the aristocracy was weakened as equality became a new ideal, indentured servitude became unpopular, and the colonies drafted new constitutions.

American System

This was an elaborate scheme supported by Henry Clay that had three main parts. It began with a strong banking system, which would provide easy and abundant credit. A protective tariff would allow eastern manufacturing to flourish. Revenues from this tariff would provide funds for a network of roads and canals, especially in the burgeoning Ohio Valley. Through these new arteries of transportation would flow food and raw materials from the South and West to the North and East. In exchange, manufactured goods would flow the opposite direction. John Quincy Adams also supported this plan.

Andrew Jackson

This president, first elected to the presidency in 1828 after he beat Adams, was made a war hero during the War of 1812. His rise to power exemplified the inexorable westward march of the American people. His era as president was marked by boisterous democracy, frenzied vitality, and strong political parties. He was a striking figure who was irritable and emaciated. He had a frontier aristocrat with poor spelling, many brawls in his past, and a violent temper. He used the spoils system to put his buddies in government positions. He would not permit defiance or disunion, refusing to agree to nullification. His actions led to the Trail of Tears. He distrusted monopolistic banking and business that were too big. He ensured the demise of the US Bank.

Articles of Confederation

The Second Continental Congress made this document, which was adopted by Congress in 1777. It was not ratified by all 13 states until 1781, but unanimous approval was required. Congress pledged to dispose of the vast western lands for the "common benefit." Under this document, there was no federal judicial system, each state had 1 vote in Congress, a vote of 9 states was required in Congress for all important measures, and there was no commercial power over commerce. The states were formed into a loose confederation, unanimity among states was required for amendment, and states were very independent. There was no Congressional power to levy taxes, the executive branch was more like a figurehead that only loosely administered laws, and the government had no authority to act directly upon individuals and no power to coerce states. The nation received no respect abroad, due to the weak central government. However, this weak document did manage to keep the nation together. Its only successful parts were the Northwest Ordinance and the Land Ordinance, which were very important.

Bacon's Rebellion

In 1676, large group of impoverished, young, single freeman in the Chesapeake region hated the governor William Berkeley because they lived on the frontier and were being attacked by the Indians that Berkeley was being friendly with. Led by Nathaniel Bacon, they killed Indians, chased Berkeley out of Jamestown, and set the capital on fire. However, Bacon soon died of disease and the remaining rebels were hanged. This event set hardscrabble backcountry frontiersmen against the gentry of the tidewater plantations and made planters want another source of labor (African slaves).

Bank of the United States

Hamilton proposed to start this establishment in February 1791, which would be chartered for 20 years as a private institution in Philadelphia and whose major stock holder would be the federal government. Its capital was $10 million. It would print money to provide a strong currency base, thus it was like a mint and a normal bank combined. There was a huge debate over whether or not it was constitutional to establish such a thing. Jefferson said no, because he supported a strict, literal interpretation of the Constitution, saying that what it did not permit, it forbade. He cited the 10th amendment, which says that any power that the federal government is not given is reserved for the states. Hamilton obviously supported it, since he proposed the idea. He called upon the elastic clause of the Constitution, saying that the government was explicitly empowered to collect taxes and regulate trade, and that Congress could pass any laws "necessary and proper" to carry out these aims. He said that chartering the establishment was both proper and necessary. George Washington agreed with Hamilton, so it was chartered.

Black Codes

The passage of these was among the first acts of the new Southern regimes. They were designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated blacks, much as the slave codes had done in pre-Civil War days. They varied in severity from state to state, with Mississippi's being the harshest and Georgia's being the most lenient. They aimed, first of all, to ensure a stable and subservient labor force. Dire penalties were imposed on blacks who "jumped" their labor contracts, as violators could be made to forfeit back wages or could be forcibly dragged back to work by a paid "Negro-catcher." These laws also sought to restore the system of race relations, by forbidding blacks from voting, serving on a jury, and renting/leasing land, among other things. Many freed blacks slipped into the status of poor sharecropper farmers, causing many people to question whether or not the North had actually won the war. Congress's Civil Rights Bill (1866) directly struck at these unfair laws.

Brook Farm

This was a community started in 1841 with the brotherly and sisterly cooperation of about 20 intellectuals committed to the philosophy of transcendentalism. They prospered reasonably well until 1846, when they lost by fire a large new communal building shortly before its completion. The whole venture in "plain living and high thinking" then collapsed in debt.

Chesapeake colonies

Life in these colonies was nasty, brutish, and short for the earliest settlers. Malaria, dysentery, and typhoid killed many people. A large number of the English migrants that came to these colonies in the seventeenth century came as indentured servants. Due to a high death rate and a shortage of women, the society in these colonies was unable to reproduce itself naturally until the last quarter of the seventeenth century. Despite its unhealthy climate, the area was immensely hospitable to tobacco cultivation. However, tobacco cultivation quickly exhausted the soil. Both VA and MD employed the "headright system" to obtain more workers to cultivate tobacco. In this region, the expansion of settlement was somewhat random and was usually undertaken by lone-wolf planters on their own initiative. When these colonies were first inhabited by English settlers, the Anglo-Powhatan Wars were fought, which effectively banished the Indians from their ancestral lands and formally separated Indian from white areas of settlement. Bacon's Rebellion occurred here.

Civil War

This war between the Union and Confederacy occurred between 1861 and 1865. Underlying causes were the issue of slavery, secession by Southern states, the Kansas-Nebraska Act and Bleeding Kansas, Uncle Tom's Cabin and The Impending Crisis of the South, the Dred Scott decision, the financial crash of 1857, and the election of Abraham Lincoln as president. The immediate cause was when Lincoln sent supplies to Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC, and the Confederates saw this as an attack. After a 34 hour bombardment by the Confederates, the fort surrendered. Turning points and important events in the war were the Trent affair, the building of the Alabama commerce-raider, the first and second Battles of Bull Run, the Seven Days' Battles, the Battle of Antietam, the Emancipation Proclamation, the Battle of Gettysburg, the Battle of Vicksburg, the Gettysburg Address, Sherman's March to the Sea, and the election of 1864. The ending event of the war was when Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse. The end result was that the Confederates did not gain independence; they were re-incorporated back into the Union instead. Short term effects were the death of 600,000 men, the establishment of the Freedmen's Bureau and expenses of the war. Long term effects were the crushing of extreme states' righters, the government having to pay for pensions, the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, an increase in industrialization, Black Codes, and Reconstruction.

Common Sense

Written by Thomas Paine and published in 1776, this pamphlet basically argued for the superiority of a republic over a monarchy. It was one of the most influential pamphlets ever written, reaching a total of 120,000 copies in a few months. Paine flatly branded the shilly-shallying of the colonists as contrary to common sense. He asked why the tiny island of Britain should control the vast continent of America, and he called the king "the Royal Brute of Great Britain." It called for a new kind of political society, a republic, where power flowed from the people themselves. He argued that all government officials should derive their authority from popular consent. His ideas fell on receptive ears. However, not all Patriots agreed with him. Some favored a republic ruled by a "natural aristocracy" of talent, fearing that the fervor for liberty would overwhelm the stability of the social order.

Commonwealth v. Hunt

In this case in 1842, the supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, as long as their methods were "honorable and peaceful." This enlightened decision did not legalize the strike overnight throughout the country, but it was a significant signpost of the times. Trade unions still had a long way to go before they could meet management on relatively even terms.

Compromise of 1850

Under President Millard Fillmore, these delicate measures passed Congress. "Union-savers" Clay, Webster, and Douglas orated on behalf of it. The North got the better end of the deal. Concessions to the North were that California was admitted as a free state, territory disputed by Texas and New Mexico was surrendered to New Mexico, and the slave trade in Washington D.C. was abolished. Concessions to the South were that the remainder of the Mexican Cession area was to be formed into the territories of New Mexico and Utah, which would be open to popular sovereignty, Texas would receive $10 million from the federal government as compensation, and a more stringent fugitive-slave law was enacted, going beyond that of 1793.

Congressional Reconstruction

This was the radical Republicans' plan to punish the South for its sins, by uprooting its social structure, punishing its haughty planters, and protecting the newly emancipated slaves with federal power. This is seen through the passage of the Reconstruction Act of 1867. The radical regimes ruled fairly well, passing much desirable legislation and introducing many badly needed reforms. For the first time in Southern history, steps were taken toward establishing adequate public schools. Tax systems were streamlined, public works were launches, and property rights were guaranteed to women. However, graft ran rampant in many corrupt radical governments, where conscienceless promoters used politically inexperienced blacks as pawns.

Credit Mobilier

This scandal that erupted in 1872 tarred Grant's presidency. The Union Pacific Railroad insiders formed a construction company group by this name and then cleverly hired themselves at inflated prices to build the railroad line. They earned dividends as high as 348%. The company furtively distributed shares of its valuable stock to key congressmen because they feared that Congress might reveal the truth. A newspaper exposé and congressional investigation of the scandal led to the formal censure of two congressmen and the revelation that the vice president of the US had accepted payments from the company.

Cult of domesticity

This was a woman's domain in the home, the traditional "women's sphere." It glorified the customary functions of the homemaker. Married women commanded immense moral power because they were seen as the keepers of society's conscience.

Declaratory Act

Parliament passed this act right after withdrawing the Stamp Act. It reaffirmed Parliament's right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." The British government thereby defined the constitutional principle it would not yield: absolute and unqualified sovereignty over its North American colonies.

Dred Scott

This man, a black slave, had lived with his master for five years in IL and WI Territory, and he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The Supreme Court, under Justice Taney, ruled that he was a black slave and not a citizen, and hence could not sue in federal courts, but the issue went further than that. They also ruled that because a slave was private property, he or she could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery, because the Fifth Amendment forbids Congress to deprive people of their property. Also, the Compromise of 1820 was ruled to be unconstitutional because Congress had no power to ban slavery from the territories, regardless even of what the territorial legislatures might want. Southerners were delighted, but champions of popular sovereignty and foes of slavery extension were upset. Republicans defied the Court's order. This issue was brought up again in Lincoln and Douglas' debate in Freeport, IL.

Election of 1824

This election was also referred to as the "corrupt bargain." John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William H. Crawford, and Andrew Jackson were the main candidates. They were all "Republicans." The House of Representatives had to break the tie between Adams, Crawford, and Jackson. Clay had a large say in this because he was Speaker of the House at that time. Adams was elected president, and Clay became secretary of state. Adams and Clay had a lot of common politically because they were both fervid nationalists and advocates of the American System. Supposedly, Adams had bribed Clay with the position of Secretary of State to make him president over Jackson, the people's first choice. Therefore, Jacksonians were very angry and said the whole thing was corrupt. There is no evidence of a secret dealing between Clay and Adams.

Election of 1860

On this election hung the issue of peace or civil war. The Democrats met in Charleston, with Douglas the leading candidate. However, delegates from the South walked out and the entire body dissolved. The Democrats tried again in Baltimore, chiefly with delegates from the North, and had a platform for popular sovereignty and against obstruction of the Fugitive Slave Law by the states. Southern Democrats had a rival convention, also in Baltimore, and selected John C. Breckenridge, whose platform favored the extension of slavery into the territories and the annexation of Cuba. The Constitutional Union party nominated John Bell of Tennessee. The Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln because he had fewer enemies than William Seward. Their platform had appeal for just about every important non-southern group, with non-extension of slavery, a protective tariff, no abridgement of rights, a Pacific railroad, and free homesteads from the public domain. Lincoln won, as a sectional president and minority president, although Douglas did make an impressive showing. This election was virtually two separate elections: one in the North, and one in the South.

Election of 1864

This election fell right in the middle of the Civil War. There was political infighting in the North, and the Northern Democrats were especially dangerous to the Union. "War Democrats" supported Lincoln, while "Peace Democrats" condemned him. Lincoln's precarious authority depended on his retaining Republican support while spiking the threat from the Peace Democrats and Copperheads. Fearing defeat, the Republican Party joined with the War Democrats to form the Union Party. Lincoln's re-nomination faced a surprising amount of opposition, as he was accused of lacking force, being overeager to compromise, of not having won the war, and of having shocked many sensitive souls with his ill-timed and earthy jokes. However, he was still nominated by the Union Party, with running mate Andrew Johnson, a loyal War Democrat. The Peace Democrats and Copperheads nominated McClellan. After a series of Union victories, Lincoln won the election.

Eli Whitney

This man's cotton gin made possible the wide-scale cultivation of short-staple cotton. This resulted in an insatiable demand for labor, thus reinvigorating southern slavery and making a Cotton Kingdom. He also came up with the concept of interchangeable parts, which became the basis of modern mass-production.

Emancipation Proclamation

After the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln issued the preliminary version of this statement on September 23, 1862, announcing that a final version would be issued on January 1, 1863. On the scheduled date, Lincoln fully redeemed his promise, and the Civil War became more of a moral crusade as the fate of slavery and the South it had sustained was sealed. The character of the war was changed as Lincoln declared "forever free" the slaves in Confederate states. However, slaves in Border States were unaffected. Basically, where Lincoln could free slaves, he did not, and where he could not free slaves, he did. Many southern slaves did run away though, fleeing to Union camps. Public reactions varied, as many ardent abolitionists did not think that Lincoln had gone far enough but moderates thought that he had gone too far. Many Union troops deserted, because they had joined the war to save the Union, not to save the slaves, but new black troops joined.

Federalist Papers

These articles were published in NY newspapers as propaganda to convince people to ratify the Constitution, beginning in October 1787. They were meant to answer all objections/questions regarding the Constitution. The authors wrote using Roman heroes as their pen-names. There ended up being 85 essays, written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. They eventually were published in newspapers in other states besides NY. The most famous of these essays was No. 10, written by Madison.

Federalist Party

This party, which opposed the Democratic-Republican (or Jeffersonian) Party, favored rule by the "best people." It was hostile to the extension of democracy, wanted a powerful central government at the expense of states' rights and a loose interpretation of the Constitution, and thought that the government should foster business. It believed in the concentration of wealth in interests of capitalistic enterprise and having a protective tariff. It was pro-British, saw national debt as a blessing, favored an expanding bureaucracy and a powerful central bank, and wanted restrictions of free speech and press. Its followers were concentrated in the seacoast area and wanted a strong navy to protect shippers.

First Continental Congress

This group being called into session was a response to the Intolerable Acts. It met in Philadelphia from September 5-October 26, 1774, to consider ways of redressing colonial grievances. The delegates were not yet calling for independence; just a repeal of the unpopular taxes.GA was the only colony that did not send delegates. Intercolonial frictions were partially melted away by social activity after working hours. John Adams played a huge role by helping defeat by a narrow margin a proposal by the moderates for a species of American home rule under British direction. The group drew up several dignified papers, including the Declaration of Rights, but everything was rejected by Parliament. One of the other papers was the Suffolk Resolves, which said that the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts are unconstitutional, and the MA should form it own government to take care of taxing citizens. The most significant action of this group was to create the Association, headed by Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee, which called for a complete boycott of British goods: nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption. It banned the importation of slaves, European luxuries, and anything with a duty on it. The plan was to meet again in May 1775 if things were still not going well.

Force Bill

This bill was known among Carolinians as the "Bloody Bill." It authorized the president to use the army and navy, if necessary, to collect federal tariff duties. It was nullified by the Columbia convention. It was a response to the threats of the "Nullies" in Carolina.

Freedman's bureau

This was created by Congress on March 3, 1865, as sort of a primitive welfare agency. It was to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education both to freedmen and to white refugees. It was headed by Union general Oliver O. Howard. It taught an estimated 200,000 black show to read. However, in some places, it did not accomplish much, as little of the confiscated land actually made it into black's hands. Instead, local administrators often collaborated with planters in expelling blacks from towns and cajoling them into signing labor contracts to work for their former masters. It eventually expired in 1872.

French and Indian War

This war, aka the Seven Years War, lasted from 1754 to 1763. It was a world war. The immediate cause of this war was when George Washington killed a French Commander. Underlying causes included: disagreement over ownership of the Ohio Country; King William's War and Queen Anne's War, which pitted British colonists against French coureurs de bois; and the War of Jenkin's Ear between Spain and Britain merging with the War of Austrian Secession in Europe. Turning points of the war were when Frederick the Great of Germany repelled French, Austrian, and Russian armies, the meeting of the Albany Congress in 1754, the failure of Braddock to capture Ft. Duquesne, which prompted an Indian scalping rampage, and the failure of Britain to invade Canada in 1756. The war ended because William Pitt, the "organizer of victory" for the British, captured Louisbourg, Quebec, and Montreal. The war was officially ended by the Treaty of Paris, which removed the French from Canada, removed the Spanish from FL, removed Indians from a lot of their land, and gave Cuba to Spain (Britain had captured it). Short term effects of this war were that over 20,000 colonists gained military experience, colonists got taxed to pay for Britain's involvement in the war, Pontiac's Rebellion occurred, and the Proclamation of 1763 was issued. Long term effects were that the colonists were upset because they did not get respect for fighting, the colonists gained confidence, and there was greater colonial unity.

Gadsden Purchase

This treaty was arranged by James Gadsden, a prominent South Carolina railroad man, with Santa Anna in 1853. The treaty ceded a small area of Mexico to the U.S. for $10 million, land which Gadsden desired for a railroad route. It enabled the South to claim a southern transcontinental railroad with even greater insistence. A southern track would be easier to build because the mountains were less high and the route would not pass through unorganized territory. Critics were outraged that $10 million had been paid for such a small, cactus-strewn area of land.

Great Compromise

This agreement appeased the larger states by having representation by population in the House and appeased the smaller states by having equal representation in the Senate. Each state would have two Senators, no matter its size, however every tax bill or revenue measure would have to originate in the House of Representations.

Half-way covenant

Announced in 1662, this arrangement modified the "covenant," or the agreement between the church and its adherents, to admit to baptism - but not "full communion" - for the unconverted children of existing members. It weakened the distinction between the "elect" and others, further diluting the spiritual purity of the original settlers' godly community. It dramatized the difficulty of maintain at fever pitch the religious devotion of the founding generation. Strict religious purity was sacrificed somewhat to the cause of wider religious participation.

Hartford convention

This was a meeting late in 1814. The states of MA, CT, and RI sent full delegations, while NH and VT sent partial representation. The men met in complete secrecy for about 3 weeks to discuss their grievances and to seek redress for their wrongs. It was actually quite moderate. It demanded financial assistance from Washington to compensate for lost trade and proposed constitutional amendments requiring a two-thirds vote in Congress before an embargo could be imposed, new states admitted, or war declared. They reflected Federalist fears that a once-proud New England was falling subservient to an agrarian South and West. They also wanted to abolish the Constitution's three-fifths clause, limit presidents to a single term, and prohibit the election of two successive presidents from the same state. However, these complaints were not brought to Washington until after the victory at New Orleans, so they seemed petty and treasonous. After this, the Federalists were never again to mount a successful presidential campaign.

Headright system

System employed by VA and MD to encourage the importation of servant workers. It said that whoever paid the passage of a laborer received the right to acquire 50 acres of land. Masters - not the servants themselves - thus reaped the benefits of landownership from this system. Some masters soon parlayed their investments in servants into vast holdings in real estate, thus becoming great merchant-planters. Their river-front estates came to dominate the agriculture and commerce of the southern colonies.

Hudson River Valley School

This group of painters (not an actual school!) excelled in art that was a romantic mirroring of local landscapes. This was the first original art movement in the U.S., as well as the 1st distinctive American vision of painting. It portrayed the American wilderness and its uniqueness as a new Garden of Eden, with God present in nature. Thomas Coal was the founder of this movement, and he helped convince Congress to create Yellowstone and Yosemite as national parks. Asher Durand, Frederick Edwin Church, Albert Bierstadt, Thomas Moran, and Jasper Cropsy were some major artists in this group. Characteristics of their paintings included a view of a virgin landscape extending into the distance, small figures set against vast nature, and men that are in harmony with nature.

Jamestown

The English established a settlement here in 1607, named in honor of King James I. The Virginia Co. of London received a charter from James I for a settlement in the New World. They were attracted by the promise of gold, the prospect of making a profit, and wanting to find a passage through America to the Indies. The charter is significant because it guaranteed the settlers the same rights of Englishmen that they would have enjoyed if they had stayed at home. When the Virginia Co.'s three ships landed near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, they were attacked by Indians. They chose the wooded and malarial banks of the James River to settle, which was devastatingly unhealthy. Settlers died from disease, malnutrition, and starvation because they were more interested in finding gold than hunting. It was very fragile due to the lack of women, and grew mostly through immigration rather than natural reproduction. Captain James Smith saved the settlement by saying that "He who shall not work shall not eat." Then, Lord De La Warr imposed a harsh military regime, severely disrupting the lives of the Powhatans. African slaves were brought here as early as 1619.

Kansas-Nebraska Act

This act, created by Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, divided the Territory of Nebraska into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. Their status regarding slavery would be settled by popular sovereignty. Kansas would presumably be a slave state, and Nebraska would be a free state. It contradicted the Missouri Compromise, which forbade slavery above the 36˚30' line. President Pierce fully supported the bill. After it was passed, the new Republican Party sprang up.

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Fearing prosecution for sedition, Jefferson secretly penned a series of statements, which the KY legislature approved in 1798 and 1799. James Madison drafted a similar but less extreme statement, which was adopted by the VA legislature in 1798. Both men stressed the compact theory, meaning that the 13 sovereign states, in creating a federal government, had entered into a "compact," or contract, regarding its jurisdiction. Therefore, individual states are the final judges of whether their agent, the federal government, had broken the compact by overstepping the authority originally granted. Jefferson's statements declared that the federal government had indeed exceeded its constitutional powers, so a refusal by the states to accept the offensive legislature (the Alien and Sedition Acts) was the remedy. No other state legislatures fell into line, and the Federalists argued that it was up to the Supreme Court (not the states) to nullify unconstitutional legislation.

Louisiana Purchase

Napoleon sold this huge area of land to the United States after he decided to give up on having colonies. He hoped that the U.S. would one day be a military and naval power that would thwart the ambitions of the British in the New World. It all happened very quickly. The American minister, Robert Livingston, was busily negotiating in Paris when the French foreign minister asked him how much he would give for all of Louisiana. In a treaty signed on April 30, 1803, Louisiana was ceded to the U.S. for about $15 million. This area more than doubled the size of the nation. Despite the fact that Jefferson was unsure that the purchase was constitutional and the fact that $15 million was more than he had authorized Livingston to pay, he allowed it to be passed.

Lowell system

The textile mill in Lowell, Massachusetts, was considered to be a show-place factory. The workers were virtually all New England farm girls, carefully supervised on and off the job by watchful matrons. Escorted regularly to church from their company boardinghouses and forbidden to form unions, they had few opportunities to share dissatisfactions over grueling working conditions. They would leave work as they grew older and got married. Later, the New England women here were replaced by Irish immigrant women.

Manifest Destiny

This was a mighty emotional upsurge in which countless citizens in the 1840s and 1850s felt a sense of mission, believing that God had "manifestly" destined the American people for a hemispheric career. They would irresistibly spread their uplifting and ennobling democratic institutions over at least the entire continent, and possibly over South America as well. Land greed and ideals - "empire" and "liberty" - were thus conveniently conjoined. Expansionist Democrats were strongly swayed by this, with their platform for re-annexing Texas and taking all of Oregon. This spirit was reinvigorated by the Mexican War and the Gold Rush in California.

Marbury v. Madison

This Supreme Court case, under Justice Marshall, was important because it established judicial review, which means that the Supreme Court has the ability to decide if laws are constitutional or not.

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

In this Supreme Court case under Justice Marshall, the state of NH tried to alter Dartmouth's royal charter, changing it to have a state-elected board of trustees. In response, the old board of trustees sued Woodward, who was the secretary of Dartmouth. Marshall rules the altering of the charter as unconstitutional, because the charter is a contract, and the Constitution is meant to uphold contracts. A bad result of this ruling was that it led to corporal abuses, but a good result was that it allowed business growth by keeping states from interfering with private contracts.

McCullough v. Maryland

In this Supreme Court case under Justice Marshall, the legislature of MD passed a law to tax and restrict the Second Bank of the United States, and the Baltimore branch ruled it as unconstitutional. There were two issues at hand: 1) is the national bank constitutional? Marshall says YES. 2) Is state tax on the bank constitutional? Marshall says NO, because with the power to tax comes the power to destroy, and the state cannot legally destroy the bank.

Gibbons v. Ogden

1824. This Supreme Court case under Justice Marshall dealt with Congress' right to control interstate commerce. The background is that Fulton perfected the steamboat and there is a shipping line with a charter that goes up the Hudson River. The case was that Ogden has a state-required license, while Gibbons has a federal license. The NY courts uphold Ogden's state license. This goes to the Supreme Court, where Marshall defines commerce loosely and says that the power to control interstate commerce is left to Congress, NOT the states.

Fletcher v. Peck

This Supreme Court case under Justice Marshall discusses the rights of contracts and upholding them.

Mercantilism

The British authorities embraced this theory, which justified their control over the colonies. Believers in it thought that wealth was power and that a country's economic wealth (and hence its military and political power) could be measured by the amount of gold or silver in its treasury. To amass gold or silver, a country needed to export more than it imported. Possessing colonies thus conferred distinct advantages, since the colonies could both supply raw materials to the mother country (thus reducing the need for foreign imports) and provide a guaranteed market for exports. In the American Revolution, the rebellious Americans wanted an end to this system. However, America did indeed benefit from the system. For example, London paid liberal bounties to colonial producers of ship parts, over the protests of British competitors and VA tobacco planters enjoyed a monopoly in the British market. Also, the colonists benefited from the protection of the world's mightiest navy and a strong, seasoned army of redcoats without paying for it. However, it was a burden because it stifled economic initiative and imposed and rankling dependency of British agents.

Mexican Cession

This was the single largest addition to American territory in history, stretching the US from sea to sea. It secured Texas, vast tracts of Southwestern desert, and California. The area was largely purchased by Southern blood in the Mexican War, so the South was angry when California was admitted as a free state. However, due to its climate, topography, and geography, a plantation economy, and hence a slave economy, could not profitably exist in this land.

Middle passage

Many slaves, up to 20%, died on this voyage from Africa to the New World. Many died from disease because they were kept in such close quarters in completely unsanitary conditions.

Missouri Compromise

This bundle of three compromises occurred in 1820 and lasted 34 years. Congress agreed to admit MO as a slave state, admit free ME as a separate state, and prohibit all future slavery in the MO Purchase north of the line 36˚30'. Extremists on both sides denounced this agreement as a "dirty bargain." However, it only ducked the question of slavery, rather than resolving it.

Monroe Doctrine

This was born late in 1823, when Adams won Monroe over to his way of thinking. Therefore, Monroe, in his regular annual message to Congress on December 2, 1823, incorporated a stern warning to the European powers. Its two basic features were 1) non-colonization and 2) nonintervention. This was first directed at Russia. Monroe was proclaiming that the era of colonization in the Americas had ended, saying that neither they nor any other Old World governments could seize or otherwise acquire more land. As for foreign intervention, Monroe was directed the European monarchs to stay away, and in return America would not intervene in the war that the Greeks were fighting against the Turks for independence. The monarchs were very angry about Monroe's statement, because America did not even have the military to back it up. In South America, the people realized that the doctrine was not helping keep them safe. Rather, the British navy was. Overall, the document was a simple, personalized statement of the policy of Monroe, and an expression of the post-1812 nationalism.

Nativists

This was a group of people who were alarmed by the influx of immigrants from Ireland and Germany. They were antiforeign and anti-Catholic, and used the slogan "Americans must rule America." They formed the Know-Nothing or American Party.

New England colonies

This was made up of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire. They had clean water and cool temperatures, adding 10 years to the average settler's lifespan. People migrated here with their families, so the family remained at the center of life. The population grew from natural reproductive increase. Early marriage was expected. Children grew up in nurturing environments where they were expected to be obedient. These colonies "invented" grandparents. Women in these colonies usually gave up their property rights before they got married. Society grew in an orderly fashion, with the distribution of land entrusted to proprietors. The town meeting, in which the adult males met together and each man voted, was a showcase and a classroom for democracy. The area was less ethnically mixed than its southern neighbors. There was a diversified agriculture and industry, due to the extremes in weather. Fine natural harbors led to shipbuilding and commerce, and the cod fish was very important. The people who lived here were known for their energy, purposefulness, sternness, stubbornness, self-reliance, and resourcefulness.

New lights

This was the name given to the revolutionary preachers of the First Great Awakening who used emotional appeals to shake enormous audiences and heap abuse on sinners. Jonathon Edward was one such preacher.

Olive Branch Petition

The Continental Congress adopted this in July 1775. It professed American loyalty to the crown and begged the king to prevent further hostilities. Basically, it was a plea for peace. However, King George III rejected it, slamming the door on all hope of reconciliation. The next month he formally proclaimed the colonies to be rebellion.

Oneidas

This radical community was established in New York in 1848 by John Humphrey Noyes. They repudiated the old Puritan doctrines that God was vengeful and that sinful mankind was doomed. Instead, they believed in a benign deity, the sweetness of human nature, and the possibility of a perfect Christian community on Earth. They thought that the key to happiness was the suppression of selfishness. The community practiced free love, birth control, and the eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring. Everyone in the community lived together in the Mansion House and shared all the tasks that needed to be done. This curious enterprise flourished for more than thirty years, largely because its artisans made superior steel traps.

Personal Liberty laws

Some states passed these laws, which denied local jails to federal officials and otherwise hampered enforcement of the new Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. It showed that the new law did a lot to awaken in the North a spirit of antagonism against the South.

Pendleton Act

Passed in 1883, this act was the so-called "Magna Carta of civil-service reform." It made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and it established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of competitive examinations rather than "pull." It succeeded in reigning in the most blatant abuses. However, politicians were forced to look elsewhere for their money and turned to big corporations, hence driving politicians into "marriages of convenience" with big-business leaders.

Political parties in the Gilded Age

In the time after the end of the Civil War, the Democrats denounced military Reconstruction but could agree on little else. Wealthy eastern delegates wanted federal war bonds to be redeemed in gold, while poorer Midwestern delegates wanted redemption in greenbacks. Agrarian Democrats hoped to keep more money in circulation and keep interest rates lower. Few economic issues separated the major parties. Democrats and Republicans saw very nearly eye-to-eye on questions like the tariff and civil service reform, and majorities in both parties substantially agreed even on the much-debated currency question. Yet, despite these similarities, the two parties were ferociously competitive with each other due to differences in ethnicity, culture, and religion. Republican voters tended to adhere to those creeds that traced their lineage to Puritanism, and therefore stressed strict codes of personal morality and believed that government should play a role in regulating both the economic and the moral affairs of society. Democrats, made up of Lutherans and Roman Catholics, spurned government efforts to impose a single moral standard on society. Also, Democrats had a solid electoral base in the South and in the northern industrial cities while Republican strength lay largely in the Midwest and the rural and small-town Northeast, as well as freedmen and Union veterans. The lifeblood of both parties was patronage, or disbursing jobs in return for votes, kickbacks, and party service.

Popular Sovereignty

General Lewis Cass was the father of this idea that the sovereign people of a territory, under the general principles of the Constitution, should themselves determine the status of slavery. It had persuasive appeal because it accorded with the democratic tradition of self-determination and was a comfortable compromise. However, it might serve to spread the blight of slavery. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, both Kansas and Nebraska were given this right to choose whether or not to have slavery. Champions of this idea were aghast at the Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision, because it said that no matter what the people decided Congress had no power to ban slavery in a territory.

Proclamation of 1763

The London government issued this law after Pontiac's uprising. It flatly prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians, pending further adjustments. The truth is that this hastily drawn document was not designed to oppress the colonists at all, but to work out the Indian problem fairly and prevent another bloody erupted like Pontiac's uprising. But countless colonists were dismayed and angered by it because they felt that they deserved to settle in the now-forbidden land west of the Appalachians because they had won it in the French and Indian War.

Alaska

By 1867, the Russians wanted to sell this area of land because they had already overextended themselves in North America and it was becoming a growing economic liability. They preferred to sell it to the United States because they wanted to strengthen the U.S. as a barrier against their enemy, Britain. So, in 1867, Secretary of State William Seward purchased this land from Russia for $7.2 million. However, most American citizens were against this, calling the area "Seward's Folly," "Seward's Icebox," "Frigidia," and "Walrussia," because they were economy-minded and anti-expansionist. However, despite the public's opinion, Congress sanctioned the purchase because Russia had been friendly to the Union in the Civil War and the territory was rumored to be teeming with furs, fish, and gold. Eventually, oil and gas were discovered there, too.

Puritanism

This denomination wanted to reform the Church of England from within. However, they were persecuted in England after Charles I dismissed Parliament in 1629. They formed the MA Bay Colony in 1630. An important member of this denomination was John Cotton, who devoted his considerable learning at Cambridge University to defending the government's duty to enforce religious rules. They believed in a doctrine of a "calling" to do God's work on earth and had a serious commitment to work and to engagement in worldly pursuits. They passed laws aimed at making sure that simple pleasures stayed simple by repressing certain human instincts. They believed that hellfire was real - a hell where sinners shriveled and shrieked in vain for divine mercy. They persecuted Quakers and dissenters such as Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams. People of this denomination also founded New Haven in Connecticut.

Quakers

This religious sect was persecuted by Puritans. Members of this religious sect that lived in Philadelphia in 1775 founded the world's first antislavery society, due to the fact that egalitarian sentiments unleashed by the Revolutionary War challenged the whole institution of slavery. However, no states south of Pennsylvania abolished slavery, and the laws throughout the nation discriminated harshly against freed blacks and slaves alike.

Shays Rebellion

This uprising occurred in western Massachusetts in 1786. Impoverished backcountry farmers were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. Led by Captain Daniel Shays (Revolutionary War veteran), these debtors demanded that the state issue paper money, lighten taxes, and suspend property takeovers. The MA authorities responded with drastic action, raising a small army. After several small skirmishes, the movement collapsed. Shays was condemned to death but ended up being pardoned. His followers were crushed. Outbursts such as this struck fear in the hearts of the rich class, who worried that the Revolution had created a "mobocracy" with an insatiable appetite for liberty. A stronger central government was becoming necessary.

South Carolina Exposition and Protest

This pamphlet was published in 1828 by the South Carolina legislature. It was secretly written by John C. Calhoun. It denounced the "Tariff of Abominations" as unjust and unconstitutional. It bluntly and explicitly proposed that the states should nullify the tariff.

Spoils System

This refers to rewarding political supporters with public office. Under Jackson, it was introduced into the federal government on a large scale. Jackson defended it on democratic grounds, saying that "Every man is as good as his neighbor" and that it was better to bring in new blood than to encourage the development of an aristocratic, bureaucratic, office-holding class. However, it was more about rewarding his old cronies. Scandal inevitably accompanied the system, because illiterates, incompetents, and crooks were given positions of public trust. The system was an important element of the emerging two-party system, cementing loyalty to party over competing claims based on economic class or geographic region.

Stamp Act

This law was imposed by Prime Minister George Grenville in 1765, to raise revenues to support the British military. It mandated the use of tamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax. Stamps were required on bills of sale for about 50 trade items as well as on certain types of commercial and legal documents. The people living in Britain had endured such a tax that was far heavier for 2 whole generations. People who violated this act were tried in admiralty courts, where juries were not allowed and people were guilty until proven innocent. Various forms of protest against this law included the formation of a special Congress to fight it, more nonimportation agreements, and protests by the Sons of Liberty. It was repealed in 1766.

States rights

This was the idea that states should be more independent rather than having the federal government in total control of them. It was exemplified through the nullification crisis with the Nullies, the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, and the secession of the Southern states in the Civil War.

Sugar Act

This was passed by Parliament in 1764, under Prime Minister George Grenville's orders. It was the first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. Passed in order to raise money to support British troops, it increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies and put high duties on foreign materials. It forbade the importation of foreign alcohol and doubled the import duties on foreign goods carried on British ships. After bitter colonial protests, the duties were substantially lowered, and agitation died down. It actually lowered the tax on molasses. This act provided for trying offenders in admiralty courts, where there was no trial by jury and people were guilty until proven innocent.

Tariffs

These were a big issue faced by multiple presidents. They protected American industry against competition from European manufactured goods, but they also drove up prices for all Americans and invited retaliatory taxes on American agricultural exports abroad. The middle states supported them, with wool manufacturers wanting to make them higher and higher, but Southerners hated them because they were falling on hard times. In 1828, Jacksonites promoted a high bill, expecting it to be defeated and make Adams look bad, but it actually passed. The Southerners called it the "Black Tariff" and the "Tariff of Abominations." South Carolina vehemently protested it and proposed nullification of it (see Nullification crisis). A new bill was passed in 1832, and one was passed in 1833 to gradually reduce the one from 1832.

Transcendentalists

These were followers of a movement that occurred in the 1830s as a result of liberalizing from Puritan theology and foreign influences. They rejected John Locke's theory that all knowledge comes to the mind through the senses. Rather, they believed that truth "transcends" the senses. It cannot be found by observation alone. Every person possesses an inner light that can illuminate the highest truth and put him/her in direct touch with God, or the "Oversoul." Their beliefs also included individualism, commitment to self-reliance, self-culture, and self-discipline, and the dignity of the individual. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman are all examples of specific people from this group.

Treaty of Ghent

This treaty ended the War of 1812. British and American envoys met in Ghent, Belgium, in 1814. The British envoys made sweeping demands for a neutralized Indian buffer state in the Great Lakes region, control of the Great Lakes, and a substantial part of conquered Maine. The Americans flatly rejected these terms. Therefore, the treaty essentially ended up being an armistice. Both sides simply agreed to stop fighting and to restore conquered territory. No mention was made of those grievances for which America had ostensibly fought, which were the Indian menace, search and seizure, Orders in Council, impressments, and confiscations. The war ended as a draw.

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

This treaty, arranged by chief clerk of the State Department, Nicholas P. Trist, was signed on February 2, 1848, thus ending the Mexican War. The treaty's terms confirmed the American title to Texas and yielded the enormous area stretching westward to Oregon and the ocean and embracing coveted California. This total expanse was about half of Mexico. The U.S. agreed to pay $15 million for the land and to assume the claims of its citizens against Mexico in the amount of $3,250,000. The treaty was approved by the Senate, 38 to 14. However, it was condemned both by those opponents who wanted all of Mexico and by opponents who wanted none of it.

U.S.-Mexican War

This was a war over land between the U.S. and Mexico in the years 1846 to 1848. The underlying causes were the spirit of Manifest Destiny making the U.S. want to annex California, the Mexicans ignoring John Slidell, Mexico defaulting on payments to American citizens, and disquieting rumors that England was going to take California. The immediate cause was Mexican troops crossing the Rio Grande and attacking General Taylor's U.S. troops, thus spilling American blood on questionably American soil. Turning points and important events include the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma (with Taylor), Santa Anna tricking Polk into letting him go back into Mexico, Kearny leading U.S. troops to capture Santa Fe, Zachary Taylor capturing Buena Vista, General Winfield Scott capturing Mexico City, the Bear Flag revolt with John C. Fremont, the Wilmot Proviso, and the failed armistice with Santa Anna for $10,000. The ending event was the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. This resulted in the U.S. getting Texas and an enormous area stretching to Oregon and the Pacific Ocean, including California, as well as the U.S. having to pay $15 million for the land and assuming claims of its citizens against Mexico for $3,250,000. Short term effects were the California Gold Rush, stimulation to the spirit of Manifest Destiny, priceless field experience for leading Civil War generals, abolitionists getting mad that it is a plot by the southern "slavocracy," and some people getting mad that not all of Mexico was taken. Long term effects were that the U.S.'s total expanse was increased by about one-third, there was more respect for U.S. military ability, and it was an ugly turning point in relations between the U.S. and Latin America.

Whig Party

This was a political party that opposed the Democrats in the new two-party system. They first emerged as an identifiable group in the Senate when Clay, Webster, and Calhoun joined forces. They attracted group alienated by Jackson. They ended up absorbing the anti-Masonic Party. They claimed to be defenders of the common man. They trumpeted the natural harmony of society and the value of community, and were willing to use government to realize those objectives. They berated leaders whose appeals to self-interest fostered conflict among individuals, classes, or sections. They favored a renewed national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, and moral reforms. William Henry Harrison was this party's candidate in the election of 1840, but they published no official platform in an attempt to avoid offense.

Wilmot Proviso

This amendment was proposed by David Wilmot of Pennsylvania. It said that slavery should never exist in any territory that was taken from Mexico. It twice passed the House, but not the Senate, so it never became federal law. However, it was eventually endorsed by the legislatures of all but one of the free states, and it came to symbolize the burning issue of slavery in the territories. Northern antislaveryites rallied around it.

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