← ap world history chapter 16 key terms Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All European Renaissance A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity; the "rebirth" of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divide into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth century to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern(Trans-Alpine ) Renaissance, from roghly the early fifteenth to early seventeenth century. Papacy The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head. Indulgence The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Martin Luther's protest against the sale of indulgences is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation. (p. 446) Protestant reformation Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England. (p. 446) Catholic reformation Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline. Witch-Hunt The pursuit of people suspected of witchcraft, especially in northern Europe in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Scientific revolution The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science. (p. 466) Enlightenment A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics. (pp. 468, 574) Bourgeoisie In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions. Joint stock company A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors. Stock exchange A place where shares in a company or business enterprise are bought and sold. (p. 460) Gentry the class of landholding families in England below the aristocracy Little ice age A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable. (p. 462) Deforestation The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves. Holy roman empire Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806. (pp. 260, 449) Habsburg A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain. (p. 449) English civil war a conflict over royal versus Parliamentary rights, caused by King Charles I's arrest of his parliamentary critics and ending with his execution. Its outcome checked the growth of royal absolutism and ensured that England would be a constitutional monarchy. Versailles The huge palace built for French King Louis XIV south of Paris in the town of the same name. the palace symbolized the preeminence of French power and architecture in Europe and the triumph of royal authority over the French nobility. Balance of power The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the eighteenth century, the major European states acted together to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful.