Any European attempts to colonize land within the North and South Americas would be seen as an act of aggression requiring US intervention.
Sherman Anti-trust Act
Poorly backed effort to regulate joint companies, bolstered by the Clayton Act
An idea proposed by the populist party to move away from the gold standard, making silver a part of the currency as well.
The belief that the most successful of society deserve to be in that place because they worked harder or are socially/economically adept.
Derogatory term for the captains of industry, who practiced unfair business practices, and therefore obtained their wealth in bad ways
Where the process involved in making a product are owned by a single man, most notably used by Carnegie.
The various small companies that make a certain product are bundled together into one single company, most notably used by Rockefeller
Taxes imposed on foreign goods, so as to limit the appeal and therefore increase domestic purchases, failed most with Hawley-smoot version
Rural to Urban Population Shift
Urban sprawl increased dramatically during the early 20th century as machinery took over. Work was found no longer in the fields, but in the factories.
Jim Crow (Laws)
State and local laws enacted in the South to create a "Seperate but equal" idea, leaving blacks with no rights
Whites were able to bypass literacy tests and poll taxes by utilizing this clause based on a relationship to a relative who could vote
Formed by farmers and workers for the improvement of working conditions, believe in bimetallism and graduated income tax
A political machine in New York, manipulating new immigrants from Ireland and the like to sway votes. Leader known as Boss Tweed
Headed by Samueal Gompers, formed of skilled labors with multiple craft unions.
Form of retaliation against businesses, rejecting their products by refusing to purchase them
A list of names of organizers and leaders of strikes, circulated among various factories to make sure the names do not receive any jobs.
Yellow Dog Contract
A loyalty contract forced upon new laborers to avoid the possibility of strikes or unions.
The favoring of native-born individuals over foreign immigrants.
Homes like Hull house provided safe residence in poor neighborhoods for reformers to study local conditions
A place for new immigrants to stop and receive their papers and green cards for residence in America
Causes of the Spanish-American War
The harsh treatment of Cuba, the intercepted letter demeaning President Mckinley, and the destruction of the U.S.S. Maine
Results of the Spanish-American War
Cuba was freed, but under U.S. tutelage by terms of the Platt Amendment with Spain assuming the Cuban debt. Puerto Rico and Guam were ceded to the United States as indemnity, and the Philippines were surrendered to the United States for a payment of $20 million.
Open Door Policy
Keeps China clear for all nations to trade with, on equal terms. Prevents partitioning like in Africa
President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad, advancing American business in foreign countries
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
TR encouraged a revolt for Panama's independence from Columbia, in exchange for building a canal.
Progressive Movement Goals/Legislation
Led to initiatives and referendums in order to advocate ideas. Also created primary elections and recalls, where citizens could vote for their political candidates and dismiss unfavorable state officials
Investigative writers who exposed the miserable conditions of American factories, promoted urban democracy
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
A book that detailed the operation of a Chicago meatpacking plant. Led to creation of Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act by Teddy Roosevelt.
The US could intervene in domestic affairs of Latin American country should their instability prove a threat to the security of the Western Hemisphere
Big Stick Policy
Theodore Roosevelt's method for achieving American goals in the Caribbean; it featured the threat and use of military force when necessary, seeming peaceful when possible
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality, led by W.E.B. Debois. Was against lynching and Jim Crow Laws
Founded by John D. Rockefeller, held a horizontally organized monopoly on oil in the United States. Created the trust, which was a board of directors for all his oil refineries.
US Steel Co
Founded by Andrew Carnegie, held a vertically organized monopoly on the steel industry. Utilized new Bessemer steel process to make steel cheaply and efficiently.
The initial spark was the assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand during a visit to Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Serbian Nationalist Group called the Black Hand. Austria declared war on Serbia which prompted Russia to help the Serbians, which led Germany to war with Russia and France, which led England to war with Germany.
Led to bias from American public for England and unrestricted submarine warfare by the Germans. Made American public wish for peace afterwards
Machine guns and chemical warfare made the it a war of attrition as there was little movement for either side.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia, World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
Great Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and later the US
Destruction of the Lusitania and Zimmerman note, threatening US by allying with Mexico, led to U.S. declaration of war on Germany. Used a moral agenda
The movement of African Americans from the racist south's Jim Crow segregation into the more progressive North, didn't work out as they planned as the north was still racist themselves
A famed passenger liner that was sunk due to a German U-boat, was used previously to carry war materials, which may have provoked the attack
Wilson's Fourteen Points
President Wilson's outlined principles that should shape the postwar peace settlement. Everyone thought he was naive and too idealistic, only his own League of Nations Plan was allowed.
Weakness of Treaty
Germany couldn't possibly repay the debt that was it was blamed for, the idea of self determination for nationalities led to issues as races refused to be governed by others, and the League of Nations did not include the United States as the senate believed it would draw the US into future foreign conflicts
Federal Reserve System
The country's central banking system, regional banks were controlled and regulated by the Federal Reserve
Selective Service Act
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
The belief that the United States should isolate themselves from foreign affairs so as to avoid being imperialistic. Alliances do not improve security but create costly wars.
There were problems with drunken men wandering the streets. Crime was a problem, as was domestic violence. Many saw it as a moral issue, preachers and woman were for prohibition
Did not have that large an impact on drinking, illegal bars were setup. Crime rose because of gangs attempting to create alcohol and sell it illegally. Just did not stop drinking as it was poorly-enforced
Teapot Dome Scandal
Harding's secretary of the interior, Albert B. Fall, was accused of leasing government land to prominent oil men for bribes. Symbolized the link between big business and government.
Roaring 20's Lifestyle
Characterized by luxury, like cars. Electrification of the US was widespread. Buying on credit was common, essentially buying items with theoretical money.
Roaring 20's music
Jazz music developed from ragtime, becoming extremely popular. Famous musicians such as Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong were black artists with white fans. Edison's Phonograph was popularized, allowing people to listen to their music anytime.
Roaring 20's Urban Sprawl
Attempts to encroach on nature were growing as housing developments were created. Florida was an attempted spot to cultivate into homes until a hurricane killed hundreds of people and kept people aback until after WWII
Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's.
1925 court case in which John Scopes attempted to teach evolution in schools. Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools, Scopes was eventually guilty of breaking the law
Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion and had a carefree attitude
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished.
Term coined for the disillusioned writers who abhorred the fraudulent progressive ideals.
Causes of the Great Depression
The stock market crash on October 29, 1929, Inherent weaknesses in the American economy, like with overproduction. The European economy was suffering as well, especially Germany
Hoover's Reaction to the Great Depression
Hoover attempted to curb the depression with the Hawley-Smoot Tariff and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. But these were either too late or simply hurt the economy further. Mostly he resorted to promoting volunteerism among companies, hoping corporations would help the poor without needing to be told to do so.
WWI veterans who were to receive a military bonus for fighting in the war. They were to receive this by sometime around 1945, but demanded it now due to the state of the economy. 15,000 veterans gathered on Washington, D.C. to push for payment, but their camps were burned down and two were killed. Hoover's actions ruined his chances of winning any reelection.
New Deal/ Alphabet Soup Programs
A series of programs and legislation by FDR in order to fix the ruinous state of America. A series of reforms such as the Emergency Banking Relief Act and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration helped to relieve, recover, and reform the country.