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Girding for War (book terms and class notes)

Fort Sumter

Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; Lincoln sent provisions to loyal commander and troops, seen as reinforcement in South, confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War. 34 hours, no one killed. both sides start to mobilize army

Richmond, VA

capital of the Confederacy after Montgomery

Border States

Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia

Butternut Region

area of southern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois where an antislavery war would have been very unpopular, didn't like Emancipation Proclamation

South Carolina

"Hell hole of secession," first to secede December 20, 1860

Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee

four states that seceded right after Fort Sumter, called submissionists and unions shriekers, listed in chronological order

Five Civilized tribes

collective name for the Creeks, Choctaws, Cherokees, Chickasaws and Seminoles in the "Indian Territory (Oklahoma)," most sided with confederacy, had slaves of their own

Plain Indians, Cherokees

two Indian tribes that sided with the Union

self determination

the right of people to choose their own form of government, basically doctrine South was fighting for

Robert Lee

Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force. became commander of Army of Northern Virginia, top graduate of West Point, distinguished himself as an exceptional soldier in the U.S. Army for thirty-two years, won many battles

"Stonewall" Jackson

Brave commander of the Confederate Army that led troops at Bull Run. brilliant tactician, considered Lee's right hand man. He died in the confusion at the Battle of Chancellorsville.

Custer

youngest General in Union army (picture pg 446) United States military leader who was defeated by the Lakota in the Battle of Big Horn in 1876 after Civil War.

Ulysses Grant

known as "Unconditional surrender" ___. mediocre west pointer (almost last in class) also considered a drunk, but his 1862 attack on Fort Donelson, Tenn., produced the first major Union victory. was appointed commander of the Union army. very harsh kind of war fare, barrel through south with Wilderness Campaign, eventually corner Lee at Appomattox

cotton famine

shortage of cotton in Britain about 1 1/2 years after the blockades began that cost many Britains their means

King Wheat, King Corn

Northern agricultural products that proved more essential in trading with Europe than King Cotton because of famine, had bountiful harvest and McCormick's reaper made selling much more efficient

75%

percent of England's cotton gotten from the South, however eventually had surplus making the blockade less threatening to England, also eventually starting buying from egypt and india

Uncle Tom's Cabin

..., Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.

Trent affair

white elephants Mason and Slidel were going to england to negotiate southern-english alliance on British ship Trent, union navy came aboard and took them prisoner, violated British right to the seas, Lincoln apologized

Seward

Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson;

Alabama

A ship built by the British. Not originally built to be a war ship but in 1862 the confederates gave it a crew and weapons but manned by Brits. It captured over sixty union vessels before it accepted a challenge from a union cruiser in 1864 off the coast of France; Captain was Raphael Semmes

Charles Francis Adams

third generation Adams family, minister to Great Britain during the Civil War, he wanted to keep Britain from entering the war on the side of the South. would've been good presidential candidate but beaten out by military hero Grant (just like his father and Jackson)

Laird rams

These were two iron-clad ships being constructed in Great Britain for the Confederacy. These ships contained iron rams, large-caliber guns, and were very dangerous to the Union blockade. After the war, the British government bough the two ships to ease tensions between the U.S. and England.

Dominion of Canada

Canadian nation established by British parliament; had its own constitution, possessed a parliamentary system and ruled itself, although foreign affairs still remained under the control of the British government, established to bolster Canadians against possible US vengeance

Napoleon III

Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximilian. He refused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and Napoleon withdrew.

Maximilian

French viceroy appointed by Napoleon III of France to lead the new government set up in Mexico, puppet ruler.France attempt to aid confederacy with Rio Grande. After the Civil War, the U.S. invaded and he was executed, a demonstration of the enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine to European powers.

Jefferson Davis

President of the Confederate States of America, very opposite personality to Lincoln

Simple Susan Tyrant

literary reference used for Lincoln in response to his unconstitutional actions, implies that he did whatever he wanted

90%

rough percent of Union soldiers were volunteers

bounty brokers

substitute brokers, people paid to deliver people to army; often enticed poorer classes

bounty boys

bounty jumpers, northern men who would go from enlistment site to enlistment site to collect money then desert to go to another

Morrill Tariff Act

1861 This was an act passed by Congress in 1861 to meet the cost of the war. It raised the taxes on shipping from 5 to 10 percent however later needed to increase: easy to pass because lack of South

greenbacks

Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)

bluebacks

term for confederate paper money

National Banking System

Authorized by Congress in 1863 to establish a standard bank currency. Banks that joined the system could buy bonds and issue paper money. First significant step toward a national bank. Causes north to come out of the war financially strengthened.

80%, 9000%

rate of inflation for North and South respectively

Shoddy millionaires

War profiteers that provide inferior quality goods in order to make a quick buck off of the gov't/people's dollar; made cardboard soles, selling old/blind horses, re-spun wool, etc. put profit above patriotism

shoddy wool

processed vs. virgin wool, inferior wool products sold by Northern manufacturers looking to earn profit

Fifty-Niners

Name given to those who rushed to harvest the petroleum gushers in 1859 Pennsylvania. The result was the birth of a new industry with its "petroleum plutocracy" and "coal oil Johnnies." Some moved west to avoid the federal draft.

Elizabeth Blackwell

Northern woman who was the first woman to become a licensed doctor in the U.S. and helped run the US Sanitiary Commission

Clara Barton

Launched the American Red Cross in 1881 (which opened opportunities for women employment). An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field. changed American nursing just as NIGHTINGALE changed it in Europe

Draft Riots

were a series of violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War, largest riot New York every had, Irish most resentful

Edwin Stanton

Lincoln's Secretary of War, he acted as a spy for the radicals in cabinet meetings.

secession

WHAT THE CIVIL WAR WAS ACTUALLY FOUGHT OVER (not slavery!), formal separation from an alliance or federation

War of Northern Aggression

what Southerners call the Civil war, see the North as a big bullying bothering them

630,000

number of people who died as direct result of civil war, about 2% of total population which was about 32mil (very large magnitude)

Army of the Potomac

Major Union army created by Lincoln; recruited 75,000 men to put down the Southern "rebellion"; Led by George McClellan in the first battles of the Civil War

West Point

one of most prominent Military Academy founded in 1802, most Civil war generals trained there

West Virginia

state formed by mountain whites in Virginia that supported union, shows northern hypocrisy that they can secede but South can't

southern gentleman

ideal for southerners, member of the "cottonocracy", he would strive to serve the people. train in military and then enter politics, Lee most beloved example

Arlington National Cemetery

This military cemetery was once the home of Civil War general Robert E. Lee

Army of Northern Virginia

major Confederate army led by General Robert E. Lee.

habeas corpus

legal principle that requires authorities to show reasons why a person should be held in custody and to provide a speedy trial, Lincoln accused of suspending this right during Civil War

Alien and Sedition acts

series of laws that sought to restrict the activities of people who opposed Federalist policies in 1798, Lincoln's acts parallel this heavily, 1st amendment not equally applied to all

National Defense Authorization Act

United States federal law that has been enacted for each of the past 48 years to specify the budget and expenditures of the United States Department of Defense, recently brought to attention for part allowing indefinite holding

pet projects

projects or issue individual senators work at, often to please their state

political pork

Getting laws passed that create jobs for people so they will vote for you.

Patriot Act

controversial law passed after 9/11 expanded the tools used to fight terrorism and improved communication between law enforcement and intelligence agencies

earmarks

"hidden" congressional provisions that direct the federal government to fund specific projects or that exempt specific persons or groups from paying specific federal taxes or fees

Eugene Debs

Socialist accused of violated Espionage Act, arrested and thrown in jail, received 1 million votes as write-in presidential candidate from jail

embalmed beef

odorous canned meat that the army ate, example how Shoddy millionaires tried to cut corners and get profit and expense of army

$300 men

nickname for men who purchased exemption from the draft in the Civil War

US Sanitary Commission

an organization led by Dorothea Dix that mobilized large groups of female workers, to work in in-field hospitals as nurses. established by Elizabeth Blackwell

draft

what union was forced to enact in March 1863; virtually all males eligible to be in army; could escape service by paying gov. or finding replacement; increased voluntary enlistments

Jay Cooke and Company

Private banking house that the Treasury was forced to market its bonds thru; they got 3/8 of 1% on all sales

Rider Bill

an attachment, schedule, amendment, or other writing that is added to a document in order to modify it, not likely passed on own

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