Military History Final: Battles Pt II

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The Peace of Amiens is broken

1805 by the Third Coalition when it declares war on France

Battle of Cape Finisterre

22 July 1805. British (under Calder) v. France (under Villeneuve). Calder drives off French fleet

Villeneuve sails back to Cadiz

11 August 1805

The three army corps waiting in Boulogne to cross the English Channel give up waiting and march off to fight in Germany

26 August 1805

Nelson returns to England after two year at sea

August 1805

French-Spanish fleet at Cadiz

2 September 1805

Nelson sets sail for Cadiz

15 September 1805

Nelson sends ships for supplies

2 October 1805

Rosily to replace Villeneuve

18 October 1805

Battle of Trafalgar

21 October 1805 Nelson (Britain) v Villeneuve (France). Britain wins but Nelson dies

Napolean declares France an empire

28 May 1804

Napoleon crowned emperor

2 December 1804 at Notre Dame

Napoleon has conquered or allied himself with every major continental European power

November 1806

Berlin Decree

November 1806 embargo on Britain. This was the beginning of the Continental System.

Milan Decree

1807, reinforced Continental System and embargo on Britain

Orders in Council

1807, British prohibit allies from trading with France

Embargo Act

1807, US stopped all foreign trade, trying to remain neutral. Led to the War of 1812 with England

Napoleon tries to take control of Portuguese ports

1807, because Portugal refused to participate in Continental System. The king fled and the Portuguese rose up in revolt, supported by a British army under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, beginning the Peninsular War in 1808

Peninsular War

began in 1808 lasted until 1814 with Napoleon's defeat, UK, Spain, and Portugal v. Napoleon

Russia leaves Continental System

1812, led to France invading Russia

Napolean invades Russian Poland

23 June 1812. Barclay de Tolly (Russia) keeps retreating, not wanting to fight France yet

Number of Napoleon's men during Polish invasion

Largest army ever: 771,500 men.

Battle of Smolensk

16-17 August 1812, 175,000 French attempt to circle behind the Russian army as it retreats, attack the city of Smolensk, which has been unexpectedly reinforced by Bagration with 130,000 men. France burned the city down and Russians evacuated

Kutuzov is appointed

17 August 1812, continues to fall back

Kutuzov finds a strong defensive position at the village of Borodino, on the road to Moscow, and begins digging earthworks

3 September 1812

Battle of Borodino

7 September 1812, Frances last offensive in Russia. Russia withdrew, saving its strength for later when it would force France out

Moscow is captured

14 September 1812

Battle of Maloyaroslavets

24 October 1812 Kutuzov successfully blocks the southern route of retreat for Napoleon. French army has to march back same way they came, a path now scorched

Berezina river

26-29 November 1812, French are crossing when Kutuzov attacks

French Grand Army leaves Russian territory

14 December 1812 with only 22,000 men. Napolean rushed back to France earlier in December when he heard of an attempted coup d'etat.

Napoleon goes on the offensive in Germany

1813, trying to regain prestige and get Prussia back as an ally, but fails to capture Berlin

Prussia declares war on France (Napoleon)

March 1813, Napolean manages to defeat the allied Prussian and Russians at the Battles of Lutzen and Bautzen. Negotiations mediated by Austria break down over the summer, and by the end of the summer Napolean faces Austria, Prussia and Russia, all of them subsidized by England

Battle of Lutzen

1813, France beats Prussia and Russia

Battle of Bautzen

1813, France beats Prussia and Russia

Battle of Dresden

26-27 August 1813, France beats Austria Prussia and Russia

Battles of Gross Beeren, Katzbach and Kulm

end of August 1813, Napoleon loses to Austria Prussia and Russia

Battle of Leipzig

14-19 October 1813 (aka Battle of the Nations, and Battle of the Three Emperors), Napoleon v. Austria Prussia and Russia. France loses

Coalition army under Blucher invades France

1 January 1814

Battle of La Rothiere

January 1814, Blucher beats Napoleon on French soil

Napoleon surrenders

11 April 1814. Exiled to Elba and monarchy is restored

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