The Spirit of the Laws
A writing on political theory that called for a separation of powers and heavily influenced the formation of American government, published in 1748 by Montesquieu.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting in the aftermath of Napoleonic Wars (1815) to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes.
Revolutions of 1848
A series of revolutions that occurred in 1848, beginning in France.
Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.
A legislative assembly of the estates of all each of the groups in France.
Olympe de Gouges
Woman who published the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, which led her to be guillotined.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
Louis XVI was a French king who supported Americans in their fight for freedom, who lost a lot of popularity later in his rule, and was eventually executed. Marie Antoinette was the wife of Louis XVI and was executed soon after her husband.
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
The traditional political and social order in Europe before the French Revolution
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate in June of 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Group of five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly.
The French legal code fromulated by Napoleon I in 1804. It reaffirmed many of the social liberties that had been introduced during the Revolution. Property rights, religious liberty, and equal treatment under the law to all classes of men were assured.