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APUSH chapter 2 terms and definitions Complete.

New Spain

searching for gold, adventurers became the first Europeans to explore the south and west US. They were looking for "cities of gold", ended up building monastaries instead.

Franciscan Missionaries

Native Americans freaked out when Spaniards and fought with them. These groups took over control of communication with the natives, and built their settlements near existing Indian pueblos.

New France

Tried to convert the native people to Catholicism. Attempts to set up settlements went poorly because of various reasons; government refused to let protestants settle the land, and because peasants had extremely strong ties to their land and feared the harshness of the new land.

Fur Trade

the eventual focus of French settlers instead of actually trying to build new settlements. Let do many negative consequences for the Indians like battles over property/land, war and disease.

Joint - Stock Companies

to provide adequate funding to create settlements, merchangs formed companies that sold shares to many investors and sought royal support.

Headright System

a system in Virginia installed to attract migrants. It gave every incoming head of household 50 acres of land and an additional 50 acres for each servant that they brought along.

Maryland Act of Toleration

to protect the Catholics in his colony (because he was one), Lord Baltimore persuaded the assembly of free men who lived there to guarantee religious freedom to all Christians (1649)

Navigation Acts

passed in an attempt to exclude dutch ships from England's overseas. Passed in 1660 and changed in 1663, they permitted only English or colonial-owned ships to enter American ports, as well as required colonists to ship certain materials only to England.

Bacon's Rebellion

backed by 400 armed men, he seized control of Jamestown and demanded that all the Indians in the area either be removed or killed, and the power taken away from the rich.

Mayflower Compact

as the puritans arrived in America without a royal charter, they created their own covenant of government to "combine ourselves together into a civill body politick". This was the first "constitution" adopted in North America.

John Winthrope

(1630) 900 Puritans boarded ships and sailed across the Atlantic under this man's leadership. He led groups of people who believed that they were chosen by God to set an example to the rest of humanity, and desired to set up a community based on Christian ethics.

Ann Hutchinson

The wife of a merchant and a mother of seven who worked as a midwife, she threatened the puritan structure of her community by challenging the religious nature of her government, and by denying the concept of "salvation through works", rather advocating "salvation through grace". She ended up being convicted of heresay, banished, and moved to Rhode island.

Pequot War

The puritans believed that they had the divine right to their land, and treated the Indians cruelly because of it. Warriors attacked English attacked English farmers who had intruded onto their lands, colonists attacked and massacred about 500 men, women and children.

Encomederos

privileged Spanish land owners who lived near the missions to collect tribute from the native population, in goods and in forced labors. They took advantage of the local monk's ignorance of the codes that were supposed to prevent forced labor of the Indians.

Popés Rebellion

Pueblo Indians destroyed Catholic churches in New Mexico.

Samuel de Champlain

Found of Quebec (1608).

New Netherlands

The Dutch in North America had little interest in religious coversion. Their focus was on commerce, and established fur-trading posts on Manhattan Island and Fort Orange. It ultimately failed as a settler colony, but flourished for a short time as a fur-trading enterprise.

Jamestown & Tobacco

set the development of a Virginia settlement into motion. By 1630, the colonists had created a flourishing economy, based off of the sale of this in Great Britain, and had a stable government.

Indentured Servants

young men and women who, in exchange for room and board for several years, signed a contract agreeing to work for someone in the New World. After four to seven years, they would be free to marry, start their own farms, or work for themselves.

Chattel Slavery

the ownership of one human being by another, designating them their "property". This was not acknowledged under English common law.

Puritans

Left Great Britain between 1620 and 1640, both to find land in the new world and to attempt to preserve the "pure" Christian faith. By setting up a colony that would closely follow the word of God, they hoped to set an example to the people back in Britain.

Massachusetts Bay Colony

(1630) 900 Pilgrims sailed across the Atlantic to attempt to create a reformed Christian society that would preserve the true faith in America and inspire religious change in England. They were governed by representative political institutions, but the vote was limited to male church-going Puritans, as Puritanism was declared the state religion at the time.

Plymouth Colony

created by Separatists, led by William Bradford. They organized themselves into a join-stock corporation with backing from sympathetic Puritan merchants. Upon arriving in America, they created their own covenant of government to govern themselves. This was the first "constitution" that was adopted in North America.

Predestination

Embraced by the Puritans, it was the doctrine that God had decided the fates of all people before they were born, and chosen a few "elect" men and women for salvation and condemned the rest to damnation.

Lord Baltimore

The proprietor of Maryland, he wanted it to become a refuge for his fellow English Catholics, and devised a policy of religious toleration intended to stop confrontations between Catholics and Protestants.

Roger Williams

(1634) The minister of a Puritan church in Salem. He preferred the Pilgrim's separation of church and state in Plymouth and condemned the legal establishment of Congregationalism in Massachusetts bay. In response, the Puritan magistrates banished him from Massachusetts Bay.

Separatists

Puritans who had left the Church of England. Ran out of England to hide from an oppressive King James I.

Popés Rebellion

Pueblo Indians, lead by their Shaman Popé, destroyed Catholic churches in New Mexico, killing over 400 Spaniards and forcing the other 2,000 to flee down the Rio Grande.

Walter Raleigh

financed three expeditions to North Carolina, but his efforts to settle the new world ultimately failed when his settlement in Roanoke vanished with absolutely no sign of where they might have gone.

Anglo-Powhatan War

Because of the influx of settlers attracted by the newly established headright system in Virginia, land-hungry farmers demanded access to the land that the local Native Americans were using. Opechancanough (Powhatan's brother) launched a surprise attack, killing nearly a third of the whites in Jamestown and vowing to "drive the rest into the ocean". The English retaliated by harvesting the Indian's corn, providing food for themselves while depriving the Indians of the sustenance.

House of Burgesses

the first elected assembly of English colonists in North America. It was established by the Virginia company in Jamestown, Virginia.

Landed Gentry

a British social class defined by being a land owner who did not actually work the land, but rather lived off of the income provided from other people working their land.

Iroquois Confederacy

formed by the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas and Mohawks. They formed the most militarily powerful tribe on the eastern border, and controlled the French trade with the French in Quebec and the Dutch in New York

King Philip's War

After concluding that only military resistance could save Indian culture, Metacom forged a military alliance with the Narragansetts and Nipmucks and attacked white settlements in New England. The war ended when Indian warriors ran out of guns and powder. And the Mohegans and Mohawks allied themselves with the Massachusetts bay government to ambush and kill Metacom.

Yeomen Farmers

men who owned small farms who worked the land themselves along with their families. They had a lot more power in the Eastern colonies.

Salem Witch Trials

Massachusetts authorities arrested 175 people and executed 20 based on the word of a few young girls who experienced strange seizures and accused their neighbors of bewitching them.

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