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the thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the

corpus callosum

caused by abnormality in the part of the brain that regulates sleep, and it appears to have a genetic component

narcolepsy

which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship

-.97

the need to take a drug in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms is called

physical dependence

mary suffered from a head injury in a car accident last week. since that time she is able to speak fluently but uses the wrong words when expressing herself. mary may be exhibiting

Wernicke's aphasia

eating, drinking, sexual behavior, and temperature control are most strongly influenced by the

hypothalamus

dr. cornelius is conducting a longitudinal study with a group of women who are currently in their late thirties. he began the study when the women were ages 6 to 9 and is interested in the changes that occur in personality over a lifetime. dr. cornelius is a

developmental psychologist

consists of periods of sleep when breathing stops, and the individual must awaken briefly in order to breathe

sleep apnea

which of the following best describes the firing of a neuron (action potential)?

a change in axonal membrane permeability facilitating an inflow of positive ions

a researcher has conducted an experiment in which she assigned all of her students four hours of homework the night before a test; in order to see what effect the extra stress has on performance. the study is flawed because the researcher did not include a

control group

mrs. matthews, a second-grade teacher, has noted that when students increase their compliance with her requests, their sharing behavior also increases. this is called a

positive correlation

these generally begin with piercing screams

sleep terrors

which of the following brain structures is located near the hippocampus and is responsible for fear responses and memory of fear?

amygdala

the term neurotransmitter refers to

a chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that is released into the synapse

a researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. what are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment?

dependent: weight; independent: exercise

the branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons are called

dendrites

tracey has been unable to participate in her gymnastics class and is very uncoordinated since she was involved in an accident where she suffered a head injury. as a result of the accident, she was likely to have suffered damage to her

cerebellum

which of the following is not a source of confounding variables?

random assignment

a 17-year longitudinal study of Costa Rican men suggests that long-term marijuana use has a negative impact on

short term memory

alisa is directed by her neurologist to have a test that will measure the magnetic fields created by electricity of the neurons in her brain. which of the following tests will alisa be most likely to have?

SQUID

bill was admitted to the hospital last week after he fell. when bill's son visited, he found his father was unable to get words out in a smooth, connected fashion. if bill's difficulty speaking is due to brain damage, what is the likely location of the damage?

Broca's area

when amphetamines are abused, the resulting effects may include

confusion, disorganized behavior, fear, delusions, and hallucinations

short, rhythmic bursts of brainwave activity that appear during stage 2 sleep are called

sleep spindles

ali is in the hospital about to undergo a brain-imaging process that involves taking many x-rays from different angles aided by the use of a computer. what type of imaging technique is being used?

computerized axial tomography (CT)

this disease involves deterioration of the myelin sheath

multiple sclerosis

REM sleep refers to

sleep periods in which a person's eyes move rapidly

what is the function of myelin

to serve as a structure for neurons

a flashback is a brief recurrence of a previously experienced altered state associated with the use of

LSD

the cognitive perspective emphasizes the role of ______ that underlie behavior

mental processes

which of the following is a machine designed to record the brain wave patterns produced by electrical activity of the surface of the brain?

EEG

joseph has been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, and as the illness progresses he is slowly losing his memory skills. which neurotransmitter is most likely to be underperforming in joseph's brain?

acetylcholine

occurs because the brain adapts to the presence of drugs by responding less intensely to them

drug tolerance

dashia was in an automobile accident that resulted in an injury to her brain. her sense of touch has been affected. which part of the brain is the most likely site of the damage?

parietal lobes

which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization?

humanism

this midbrain structure plays a central role in the development of Parkinson's disease

the substantia nigra

which part of a neuron is attached to the soma and carries messages out to other cells?

axon

holds that being awake wears and tears on the body and brain, and sleep serves the function of restoring body and mind

restorative theory

stage 4 sleep is marked by

delta waves

endorphins are responsible for which of the following?

a "runner's high"

if darren's brain is like that of most people, then language will be handled by his

left hemisphere

what did sigmund freud consider as the key to understanding the nervous disorders he observed?

unconscious mind

the school of psychology called behaviorism was started by

John B. Watson

andy has decided to seek medical help for mood disturbances and appetite problems. which neurotransmitter is most likely involved in the problems andy is experiencing?

serotonin

the tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron is called the

synapse

libby's physician refers her to a medical center in order to have the biochemical activity in her brain analyzed. she is given an injection of radioactive substance and the is told to lie down with her head on a scanner. the technique being used is

positron-emission tomography

jeremy has some doubt about another researcher's claim of discovering ESP in all humans. jeremy decides that he will try to conduct the same study himself. jeremy will be doing a

replication

the structures of the limbic system play an important role in

memory and emotion

the research method that is used to explore cause-and-effect relationships between variables is the

experimental method

how many stages are there win NREM sleep?

four

during a ski holiday, hans collided with a large ponderosa pine tree. he now suffers from amnesia, and cannot store or remember new information since his meeting with the tall evergreen. the accident has likely disrupted function in

Hans' hippocampus

malcolm, age 35, is severely depressed. because of this he is given electroconvulsive shock therapy. after treatment, he is sent home and does much better. however, his TV-watching behavior is strange. malcolm thinks that last year's episodes of his favorite TV series are new. malcolm is showing signs of

retrograde amnesia

last month walter became sick after eating two chili dogs, so he no longer likes chili dogs. walter has experienced

conditioned taste aversion

in the curve of forgetting developed by Ebbinghaus, the greatest amount of forgetting occurs

within the first hour after learning new material

improves working memory efficiency and plays a role in the development and maintenance of synapses in memory areas of the brain, such as the hippocampus

estrogen

stores facts, information, and personal life events that can be brought to mind verbally or in the form of images and then stated

declarative memory

albert bandura's experiments involving the inflated "bobo doll" indicate

children will model the aggressive behaviors they see others engage in

which memory system has an unlimited capacity and can keep information for hours or decades?

long-term memory

for years researchers thought the bond that formed between a child and caregiver was due to the caregiver's physical nourishment of the child. research by harry harlow indicates

contact comfort is the glue that bonds child and caregiver

a researcher who selects a sample of people of varying ages and studies them at one point in time is, by definition, using the

cross-sectional design method

anything that strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows

reinforcer

greta's child has facial deformities, a smaller than normal head, heart defects, mental retardation, learning difficulties, and delayed growth. if these defects can be traced to a teratogen used by greta when she was pregnant, which was she most likely abusing?

alcohol

in an effort to have neutral stimuli to use in his experiments, ebbinghaus introduced the

nonsense syllable

_____ refers to heredity; _____ refers to environmental influences

nature; nurture

one group of participants is followed an assessed as the group ages

longitudinal design

it has been estimated that the number of items that could be stored in short-term memory to be the magic number

7, plus or minus 2

the three parts of the information-processing theory of memory are

sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory

an expert in parenting is addressing parents at the local grade school. when the topic of punishment is discussed, what is one outcome of punishment the expert is likely to not for the parents to consider?

punishment can also lead to the child acting aggressively

this is an increase in the efficiency of neural transmission at the synapses that lasts for hours or longer

long-term potentiation

if your mastery of the material in chapter 6 of the text interferes with what you learned in chapter 5, this would be considered

retroactive interference

your little brother has a big ball of clay. while he watches, you roll the ball of clay into a long snake-like shape. he begins to cry because he thinks he has less clay now. which of piaget's stages is your brother likely to be in?

preoperational

after having first conditioned an animal to salivate to a tone, pavlov found that without pairing with food, salivation to the tone became weaker and weaker and then finally disappeared. this process is known as

extinction

the mental representation of the layout of a college campus represents

a cognitive map

which of the following is not considered a teratogen?

vitamins not about the recommended daily amount

in piaget's theory, accommodation is used to

modify existing schemes and establish new mental frameworks

the owner of a business shows up randomly three or four times a month and inquires about the employee's health, their families, and how they are getting along at work. he also passes out a few extra dollars. the owner is reinforcing his employees on a

variable-interval schedule

maintenance rehearsal is defined as

repeating some bit of information over and over in one's head in order to maintain it in short-term memory

pam's strategy for mastering her new phone number was to group the numbers into meaningful units based on historic dates. this is an example of

chunking

al must build 25 radios before he receives -20. what schedule of reinforcement is being used?

a fixed-ratio schedule

sensory memory normally holds visual images for a fraction of a second and sounds for about

2 seconds

which of the following types of memories would be found in episodic memory?

gong to a professional baseball game with your parents on a warm summer day and catching a foul ball

jane can type 100 words per minute, but she can't name the keys in each row from left to right. jane is relying on

nondeclarative memory

H.M., the individual who had his hippocampal region removed as a means of reducing his epileptic seizures, lost his ability to encode new memories; however he could still form new

nondeclarative memories

in a classic experiment, tolman exposed a group of rats to a maze for 11 days before he introduced a food reward. the rats outperformed rats that had been given daily food rewards. this demonstrates

latent learning

the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred is called

spontaneous recovery

if a student studies very hard in order to avoid getting bad grades, this is an example of which behavioral principle?

negative reinforcement

what was the unconditioned stimulus (US) in pavlov's experiment with the dogs?

food powder

mary ainsworth observed that securely attached infants

cry if the mother leaves the room, are easily soothed, and welcome her back when she returns

harmony notices that her cat salivates as soon as her cat hears the sound of harmony opening a can with an electric can opener. in this example, the ____ is the conditioned stimulus

sound of the electric can opener

what are some of the common consequences to a child whose mother smoked while pregnant?

lower birth weight and short stature

simon is teaching his daughter, who is in third grade, her multiplication tables. he explains to her that he memorized them when he was in fourth grade, and hasn't forgotten them since. information like multiplication facts is stored in

semantic memory

normally, when food is placed in the mouth of any animal, the salivary glands start releasing saliva to help with chewing and digestion. in terms of pavlov's analysis of learning, salivation would be referred to as

an unconditioned response

according to thomas and chess, a child that is very irregular in sleeping and eating, resists change, and tends to be loud is labeled a

difficult child

based on lotus's 1978 study, subjects viewed a slide presentation of an accident, and some of the subjects were asked a question about able care when the actual slides contained pictures of a green car. when these same subjects were asked about the color of the car at the accident, they were found to be confused. this is an example of

misinformation effect

the process of encoding, storage, and retrieval are seen as part of the

information processing model of memory

pediatricians test the reflexes of young infants primarily as a way to measure

nervous system development

mandy, who is five, recently spotted a bee buzzing in circles on the sidewalk. she bent over and picked up the insect and it stung her. now whenever mandy hears an insect buzz, even a housefly buzzing against a screen, her heart rate increases. mandy's fear of houseflies is

an example of generalization

unless you repeat them, items placed in short-term memory are usually lost in less than

30 seconds

excessive levels of the stress hormone _____ has been shown to interfere with memory in patients who suffer from diseases of the adrenal glands

cortisol

why did research participants in spelling's experiment recall so few letters stored in sensory memory?

the remaining stimuli quickly faded from sensory memory

people who are exposed repeatedly to unpleasant events over which they have no control may become passively resigned to those outcomes. this is called

learned helplessness

hypochondriasis and conversion disorder are both types of

somatoform disorders

billy, a 5 year old, talks often about marrying his mother when he gets older. at times, he seems to resent his father. freud might suggest that this is representative of billy's

oedipus complex

a therapist with this perspective will assume that maladaptive behavior can result from irrational thoughts, beliefs, and ideas, which that therapist will then try to change.

cognitive

in general, antipsychotic drugs work by

blocking dopamine receptors in the brain

which of the following is a key component to Roger's person-centered therapy?

unconditioned positive regard

what are the big five personality traits?

openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism

while taking the minnesota multi phasic personality inventory, vince notices that it contains certain questions that are asked several times in different ways. he asked his daughter, who is a graduate student in psychology, why that is. what is his daughter likely to say?

some items are used to determine if test takers are trying to "fake" the test by not reading

the second generation of antidepressants were designed to block the reuptake of serotonin. these drugs are called

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

which of the following is a negative symptom of schizophrenia?

social withdrawal

alice takes lithium to control symptoms of her mental disorder. alice is most likely suffering from

bipolar disorder

excessive or unrealistic fearfulness and worry are characteristic of

anxiety disorders

according to Jung, the memories and behavior patterns inherited from past generations are part of the

collective unconscious

according to albert ellis, we become unhappy and depressed about certain events because of

our irrational beliefs

in this type of therapy, the person is exposed to their fear all at once, not gradually

flooding

this neurotransmitter is often disrupted in cases of schizophrenia

dopamine

the first stage of freud's psychosexual stages of personality development is the

oral stage

when a client reacts to an analyst with the same feelings (eg. anger) that were present in another significant relationship, this is called

transference

a person's responses to a projective test are thought to reflect

unconditioned thoughts or feelings

a person who is suffering from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations and who is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality is likely suffering from

schizophrenia

the humanistic perspective suggests that psychological disorders develop when

the natural tendency towards self-actualization is blocked

marty is moody, manipulative, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others. he wants to have close relationships but is unable to do so because he is untrusting of others. marty is suffering from

borderline personality disorder

dr. shedrika uses a form of therapy that emphasizes revealing his clients' unconscious conflicts, urges, and desires, which he believes are the cause of his clients' disordered emotions and behavior. this therapist is most likely using

psychoanalysis

the psychoanalytic patient who lets her thoughts flow without interruption or fear of negative criticism from her therapist is using

free association

when people have _____ their anxiety increases and they often experience _____ in order to try to relieve the anxiety

obsessions; compulsive behaviors

erin desperately wanted a job with a large computer company, but in her five-minute interview she failed to impress them sufficiently to get hired. whens he talked about this with her friends later, she said she was glad that she didn't get the job because she didn't want to get lost in a big corporation. what defense mechanism is erin using?

rationalization

gary takes antipsychotic drugs to control the symptoms of schizophrenia. after taking the drug for some time, he begins exhibiting repetitive, involuntary jerks and movements to his face, lips, and legs. gary is showing signs of

tardive dyskinesia

brittany drinks, parties, and often has casual sex with people she hardly knows. freud would say that brittany is dominated by her

id

axis II of the DSM-IV-TR consists of

personal disorders and mental retardation

in contrast to earlier uses of ECT, today the technique involves stimulation of

the right hemisphere only

dissociative disorders generally result from

unbearable stress

marked by excessive euphoria, inflated self-esteem, wild optimism, and hyperactivity

a manic episode

devonn feels guilty over having broken his mom's dvd player. his feeling is being driven by which component of the personality?

superego

in which disorder does a person seem to experience at least two or more distinct personalities existing in one body?

dissociative identity disorder

darcy is sitting at her desk in her office one day when, without warning, her heart begins racing rapidly, she has a sensation of being "out of her body", and she experiences dulled vision and hearing. she thinks she is having a heart attack. nothing she is doing seems to have caused such an episode. her symptoms most resemble

a panic attack

which of the following tests include scales for hypochondriasis, psychasthenia, and hypomania?

minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI-2)

a typical american has _____% of developing cancer in his/her lifetime, and _____% chance of developing a mental disorder

30; 50

cindy, a schizophrenia patient, often goes rigid for long periods of time. she likely has

catatonic schizophrenia

the person-centered therapist has to be able to acknowledge and understand what the client is feeling and experiencing. this process is referred to as

empathy

a recently developed treatment for depression that is offered as an alternative to ECT

rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

major depression and bipolar disorder are both examples of

mood disorders

this type of therapy requires that you, with the help of a therapist, create a hierarchy of your fears

systematic desensitization

which psychological test asks the subject to tell a story based on a picture of one or more people in which it is unclear what is going on?

thematic apperception test (TAT)

according to freud, the most frequently used defense mechanism is

repression

share recently moved into her own apartment. shara's mother is appalled at the sloppy housekeeping of her daughter, but when she says anything to share, her daughter becomes quite hostile. freud would describe shara's behavior as

anal expulsive

arlene has an irrational fear of flying in airplanes. she is probably suffering from a

phobia

laurie, a 30-year-old homemaker, has delusions and hallucinations, often acts silly, giggles loudly and inappropriately, makes odd gestures, and does not bathe or change her clothes regularly. her symptoms indicate she is suffering from

disorganized schizophrenia

delusions of _____ are false beliefs held by a person who is convinced that others are trying to hurt them in some way

persecution

a disorder in which a child shows both significant problems in focusing attention and higher than average levels of physical activity is

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

the primary purpose of the DSM-IV-TR is to

help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders

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