To find, recover and preserve the past
To reconstruct past lifeways
To establish cultural chronologies
To interpret and explain sequences of events
excavations at Jericho disprove the Biblical account of the walls collapsing
Eliminates the impossible
"When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however unlikely, must be truth." S. Holmes
Postulates the general conditions of a range of cases/examples
Advances research faster by limiting inductive error
When falsification can no longer happen you have achieved a stable hypothesis
Expression of human fascination with the past
Part of a desire to possess and connect to the past
Sometimes used to control the present by attaching to the past
, The belief that the sun was the center of the solar system and that the earth rotated around it
the lost continent of Atlantis developed, diffuesed, then lost great early technology
Stone Bronze Iron
had arch. sites on his estate; proposed careful digging and gave artifacts to museums; began professionalism in Arch.
Sir William Petrie
Should be "Father of Archaeology"
-made archaeology a science
-Pottery Seriation: pottery goes in and out of style, battleship curves (relative dating)
-Stratigraphy: levels of cites, to is most recent
augustus pitt rivers
In the UK, Used his military methods, survey, and precisions to organize excavations
was a leading archaeologist of Neolithic culture in the Fertile Crescent. She is best known for her excavations in Jericho in 1952-1958.
Three Age System (stone, bronze, iron); seriation; identified problems of dating; Head of Danish Royal Museum in 1816
Processualism; Archaeology should be looking for laws of universal cultural change; tried to bring scientific aspects to archaeology
Post-Processual Archaeology; Contextual Archaeology; originally a Processualist but not satisfied with the limitations of it and was interested in cultures role in shaping human behavior
SIPAN architect who found the tombs
Hydraulic / Irrigation Hypothesis: state-level societies rose up because population increase led to building of irrigation systems, which needed people to oversee and organize, which led to a new social organization
MARITIME FOUNDATION was director of the Chan Chan-Moche Valley Project in Peru, a survey & excavation of urban & pre-urban sites in the Moche Valley (from 1969 to 1975); coined maritime hypothesis
Examined figurines from Teotihuacan
first pharaoh of unified Egypt
Googly eyed Teotihuacano god
amanda aldhouse- green
Cetic society society and ideology
N. American site - engraved shel. Looted the mining company.
he built 3 pyramids; the true pyramid, the bent pyramid, the pyramid at meydum
What civilization developed writing and what form?
RED & WHITE CROWN..The site in Upper Egypt of one of the most ancient cities in Egypt. Hierakonpolis was probably the capital of one of the kingdoms that preceded the unification of Egypt. The famous "Narmer Palette" was found here. Hierakonpolis continued as an important center throughout Egyptian history.
Mohenjo-daro & harappa
earliest cities found in the Indus River Valley
HUACA DEL SOL AND HUACA DE LA LUNA
AKA WHITE TEMPLE..super nova of ancient Mesopotamian cities. The city began as a religious center with the ziggurats as a center spot in the city.
name of the capital city and empire centered on the region near lake titicaca in modern bolivia
floodplain of moche river in n peru
unlooted tomb of a moche noble
an ancient Mayan city located on the Yucatan Peninsula
Maya Lowlands - largest pre classic site - major center
a form of divination, in which you read the cracks in bones of animals
A town that served as the capital of the Olmecs for 400 years.. VERECRUZ
SOUTHEASTERN CEREMONIAL COMPLEX
The first large urban center in the Americas, developed by the Zapotec -- Earliest writing system
the first peoples inhabited the American continent during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period
Brazil; evidence of human occupation is claimed to date to 48,000-35,000ya; claim is highly controversial; supports pre-clovis
small temple supporting major ziggurat
holds that human occupation of the Americas predates 15,000 years ago
oldest site of human inhabitation in North America located in Pennsylvania
beringia.... what is so important?
PEOPLE WALKED ACROSS IT to get to new world
locatin of catalhyuk
DRIVE A ____ FROM A ___
tomb of the eagles
An Early Bronze Age burial under a tumulus, or earthen mound. The site is located near Stonehange in southern Britain, and it produced a range of metal items including bronze and copper daggers and gold clothing ornaments.
settlement known as jericho
ddispersementy of obsidian in mesoamerica
A mound builder society that was centered in the Ohio River Valley from about 200 B.C to AD 400
n. syrua- foot of zagros mts
a cave in southwestern France that contains Paleolithic paintings
end of upper paleolithic - projectile points
site near jordon river
V GORDON CHILDE
NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION ORIGINATOR
argued druids built stonehenge
the need of more food was initially felt at the margins of the natural habitat of the ancestors of domesticated plants;revised population hypothesis.
argued MYCENEANS built stonehenge
A food producer
A non-food producer
incorporated ideas about population pressure and the margins of the Fertile Crescent.
The effects of population pressure would be felt most strongly at the margins of a natural habitat zone where wild foods were less abundant.
There is an inherent tendency for growth in human population.
After 10,000 B.C., all the habitable areas of the planet were occupied, and population continued to grow.
The only way for humans to cope was to begin to cultivate the land and domesticate animals.
Essential Resources for Survival
Two Kinds of Feasts
Generalized Levels of Organization