Geographers go out in the field and see what people are doing, and they observe how peoples' actions and reactions vary across space.
The field that focuses on how people make places, and how we organize space and society, how we interact with each other in places and across space, and how we make sense of others and ourselves in our localities, regions, and the world.
A set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and heightening interdependence without regard to country borders.
The study of physical phenomena on Earth.
Relating to space (physical and human.) Spatial arrangement is crucial to the study of places and phenomena.
Physical location of geographic phenomena across space.
The design of spatial distribution.
The study of health and disease within a geography context and from a geographical perspective. Among other things, medical geography looks at sources, diffusion routes, and distribution of disease.
An outbreak of disease that spreads worldwide. (Spanish flu)
Regional outbreak of disease. (Swine flu)
Observing variations in geographic phenomena across space.
Developed by the "Geography Educational National Implementation Project." The five themes of human geography are location, human-environment, region, place, and movement.
The first theme of geography. The geographical situation of people and things.
A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which it's producing areas are interraled.
The second theme of geography. The reciprocal relationship between human and environment.
The third theme of geography; an area on the Earth's surface marked by a degree of formal, functional, or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon.
The fourth theme of geography; uniqueness of a location.
Sense of Place
State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character.
Perception of Places
Belief of "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories, or pictures.
The fifth theme of geography; the mobility of people, goods and ideas across the surface of the planet.
The accessibility between two distances.
The measured physical space between two planets.
The ease of reaching one location from another.
The degree of linkage between two locations in a network.
The visible imprint human activity on the landscape. (Architecture)
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.
The art and science of making maps.
Maps that show locations of places and geographic features. (Needs a grid system of some sort.)
Maps that tell stories typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon.
Accurate in showing the exact placement of things, using a coordinate system.
Satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features.
The description of a place in relation to other human and physical features.
Maps in our minds of places we have been to and places we have merely heard of.
Places we travel to routinely in our rounds of daily activities.
Maps that display general trends.
A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.
Involvement of players at other scales to generate support for a position or an initiative.
A region with definite visible characteristics. A type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one of more phenomena also called uniform region or homogeneous region. (Natural landscape, like the everglades or football territory.)
A region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it. (Football territories are known based on interactions.)
A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea. ("The south.")
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
A related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking.
An area where culture traits develop and from which the culture traits diffuse.
The process of dissemination, the spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth to other places.
The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin of source.
Prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture.
The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person.
A pattern in which the main channel of diffusion is some segment of those who are susceptible to what is being diffused.
A form of diffusion in which a cultural adoption is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place.
Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones.
The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural developments.
Lines connecting points of equal temperature values.
Human decision making is a crucial factor in cultural development.
An area of inquiry concerned with culture as a system adaptation to and alteration of environment.
An area of inquiry fundamentally concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political-economic arrangements and understandings.
A measure of total population to relative lands size. Population density assumes an even distribution of the population over the land.
Arithmetic Population Density
The population of a country or region expressed as an average per untit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers of miles that make up the unit.
Physiological Population Density
The number of people per unit area of agriculturally productive land.
Descriptions of locations on the Earth's surface where individuals or groups (depending on the scale) live.
Maps used to represent population distributions, in which one dot represents a certain number of a population.
One large urban area (that includes Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, N.Y.C., and Boston.) The actual term refers to "huge urban agglomerations."
A periodic and official count of a country's population.
The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase.
The difference between the number of births and the number of deaths.
Crude Birth Rate
The number of live births per year per thousand people in the population.
Shift in population.
Stationary Population Level
the level at which national population ceases to grow.
Structure of population's terms of age, sex and other properties, such as marital status and education.
Visual representations of the age and the sex compositions of a population whereby the percentage of each age group is represented by a horizontal bar the length of which represents its relationship to the total population.
Infant Mortality Rate
A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population.
Child Mortality Rate
Records of the deaths of children between the ages of 1 and 5.
The number of years, on average, someone may expect to remain alive.
(65% of all diseases) diseases that include and invasion of parasites and their multiplication in the body.
Chronic or Degenerative Disease
Generally long-lasting afflictions, now more common because of higher life expectancies.
Generic or Inherited Diseases
Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in a human.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, a new disease identified in Africa in the early 1980s.
Expansive Population Policies
Government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth.
Eugenic Population Policies
Policies that are designed to favor one racial or cultural sector of the population over others.
Restrictive Population Policies
Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.
A program established by the Chinese government in 1979 to stop the population growth in China.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The number of births per 1,000 people, a measure of birth performance of a population.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The number of deaths per 1,000 people, an indicator of death experience of a population.
Crude Rate of Natural Increase
The difference between CBR and CDR.
Demographic Transition Model
A tool used by geographers and demographers for understanding the dramatic variations in birth, death, and growth rates world-wide. (Great Britain)
A state in which the forces making for change are in balance.
Age-Specific Birth Rates
A precise indicator of the number of births occurring in each age cohort.
Total Fertility Rate
A cross-sectional look at current fertility conditions.
A standard that maintains a population.
The growth of a population long after replacement fertility has been achieved.
Cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions and institutions of usually small, traditional communities.
Cultural traits, such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are a part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies. (Large culture trait.)
Group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community, who share experiences, customs, and traditions. Local cultures work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others.
The art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people.
The beliefs, practices, ethics, and values of a group of people.
A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples.
Point of origin.
The process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities, or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture. Often used to describe immigrant adaptation to new places of residence.
A practice that a group of people routinely follows. Customs regard all aspects of life. To sustain a culture, customs must be maintained.
The process by which other cultures adopt customs and knowledge and use them for their own benefit.
The seeking out of the regional and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world.
Neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs.
The process through which something (a name, a good, an idea, or even a person) that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought or sold becomes an object that can be bought, sold, and traded in the world market.
(When commodification occurs, the questions of authenticity follows.) In the context of local cultures or customs, the accuracy with which a single stereotype or typecast image or experience conveys an otherwise dynamic and complex local culture or its customs.
The effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction.
A term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time- space convergence (the greatly accelerated movement of goods, info., and ideas during the 20th century) has rapidly reached a high level of intensity.
The loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape to the point that one place looks exactly like the next.
The notion that what happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vise versa. This idea means that the world is comprised of an interconnected series of relationships that extend across space.
The process in which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes.
A term referring to a process in which people start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and place, and making their own.
"A culture's assumptions about the differences between men and women: their characters; the roles they play in society; what they represent."
"How we make sense of ourselves." (Gillian Rose) Identities are constantly changing.
A powerful way to construct an identity. To identify against, first we define the "other," and then we define ourselves as "not the other."
A constructed identity that is a perfect example of how identities are built geographically. Biologically, all people are part of the same race, the human race. The various "races" to which people refer are not biologically based.
Superiority attached to race. Distinctions among people based on their physical characteristics.
"Degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment." (Eveness, exposure, clusters, concentration, centrilization)
"Where people share not only a culture but an ethnos, their belongingness or binding into group and place, and their sense of cultural identity, are very strongly defined."
"Social relations stretched out."
"Particular articulations of those social relations (space) as they have come together, over time in that particular location."
Places designed for women or for men.
Explanation that social scientists are appropriating a commonly used negative word in society and turning it to describe a theory that "highlights the contextual nature" of opposition to the heteronormative and focuses on the "political engagement" of "queers" with the heteronormative.
In the context of arranged marriages in India, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom (the dowry) have, in some extreme cases, led to the death of the bride.
(Referring to "bario," the spanish word for neighborhood.) The dramatic increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood.
Movement that involves shorter periods away from home. (Nomadism)
Movement that involves shorter periods away from home. Activity space moves.
Movement that involves a degree of permanence.
A space where a daily routine regularly takes place. Activity spaces are found locally.
A type of cyclic movement that is a matter of survival, culture, and tradition.
A type of periodic movement, which involves millions of workers in the U.S. and tens of millions worldwide.
Movement across country borders.
People that add to the total population of a country.
Migration that occurs within a single countries borders.
Movement that involves the imposition of authority or power, producing involuntary migration movements that cannot be understood based on theories of choice.
Movement that occurs after a migrant weighs options and choices (even if desperately or not so rationally), and can be analyzed and understood as a series of options or choices that result in movement.
Laws of Migration
1. Every migration flow generates a return or counter-migration.
2. The majority of migrants move a short distance.
3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations.
4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.
5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.
A model that predicts interaction between places on the basis of their population size and distance between them.
The conditions and perceptions that help the migrant decide to leave a place.
The circumstances that effectively attract the migrant to certain locales from other places- the decision of where to go.
Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages.
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites father away.
Being sent back home.
Push or pull factors based on family relations.
Migration that occurs when the migrant chooses a destination and writes, calls, or communicates through others to tell family/friends at home about the new place.
Swells in migration from one origin to the same destination.
Migration occurring at the scale of the world, in a global setting.
People who explore land.
A physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the place and the land.
Migration taking place on a smaller scale, as opposed to globally.
Islands of Development
Often coastal cities because they are established based on access to trade.
"A person who has a well-founded fear of being prosecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion."
Internally Displaced Persons
People who have been displaced within their own countries, but they do not cross international borders as they flee. Ex- hurricane victims.
The right to protection in the first country in which the refugee arrives.
The process of returning refugees to their homeland.
"Acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group."
Laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state.
Established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year.
Immigration, in which individuals with certain backgrounds (criminal records, poor health, subversive activities) are barred from entering.
The study of the political organization of the world.
A politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government.
"The attempt by an individual or group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area."
Having the last say (having control) over a territory- politically and militarily.
The right of a state to defend sovereign territory against incursion from other states.
The idea that the world can only have so much wealth, and states promote their economic position with the help of trade and commercialism.
Peace of Westphalia
The event in European history that marks the beginning of the modern state.
A group of people who think of themselves as one based on a sense of shared culture and history and who seek some degree of political territorial autonomy.
A politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space. (Israel, North Korea, Iceland)
The idea that the people are the ultimate sovereign- that is, the people, the nation, have the ultimate say over what happens within the state.
A state with more than one nation inside its borders.
A nation that stretches across borders and across states.
Nations lacking a state. This complication arises from lack of fit between nations and states. (Kurds)
Rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place.
Representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization.
In the world economy, people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them on the world market, with the goal of achieving profit.
The process of placing a price on a good and then buying, selling, and trading the good.
Higher levels of education, higher salaries, more technology- generates more wealth in the world economy.
Lower levels of education, lower salaries, less technology- generates less wealth in the world economy.
Places that incorporate both core and periphery processes.
Forces within the state that unify people.
The forces within the state that divide people.
Governments that are highly centralized, with the capital city serving as the focus of power.
A system that organizes state territory into regions, substates, provinces, or cantons.
The movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state.
Each representative is selected from a defined district.
Process by which districts are moved according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people.
Diluting the minority voters by splitting them among districts.
Packed districts where the minority is the majority.
Immortalizing a district.
Vertical plane that cuts through rocks below and above diving territories.
Boundaries that follow a physical feature.
a. Who rules East Europe commands heartland.
b. Who rules heartland owns world island.
c. Who rules world island rules world.
World order in which one state is in a position of dominance.
Entity composed of 3 or more states that form an association.
Intellectuals of state craft construct ideas about places, ideas reinforce their political behaviors and these ideas affect how people process politics.
Boundary based on shapes. (Geometric shapes)
Culture Traits and Complexes
"Culture traits create culture complexes, culture complexes define culture."
Demographic Transition Model
"The demographic transition model is population change over time in Great Britain during the industrial revolution."
Making a Boundary
Vectored Infectious Disease
An infectious disease that involves a median.
Direct Infectious Disease
An infectious disease that requires direct contact.
Displays interactions between two populations based on size and distance between them.