Ch. 7 AP Human Geography (Ethnicity)

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Darfur

Western section of the country of Sudan which has suffered civil war since 2003 and has had over 500,000 people killed and 21/2 million people displaced from their homes.

sharecropper

Farmer who works land owned by another and is required to give the landowner a set percentage of the harvest - what many former slaves became after the Civil War.

ethnic cleansing

Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region. Example: Bosnia, Kosovo.

Brown v. Board

Landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier rulings going back to Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, declared that state laws which established separate public schools for black and white students denied black children equal educational opportunities. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9-0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This victory paved the way for integration and the Civil Rights Movement.

Ethnicity

Is identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth.

Rodney King

An African-American driver who, in 1991 was stopped and then beaten by Los Angeles Police Department officers. Later, on April 29, 1992, when a jury acquitted the 3 white and one hispanic Los Angeles Police Department 1992 Los Angeles Riots

United Kingdom

Country in Northern Europe occupying most of the British Isles: England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland

Kashmir

A region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent; India and Pakistan dispute control of it because of the 1947 Partition

serfs

In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perform set services for the lord.

white flight

Words that describes working and middle-class white people move away from racial-minority suburbs or inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs after the Brown v. Board education decision.

Civil War

The period of warfare between the Confederate States of America (1861-1865) and the United States over the issues of states' rights and slavery.

Apartheid

A system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by whites was maintained.

Jim Crow

Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government

triangular slave trade

A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa

Ghetto

During the middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.

race

A socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important.

racist

A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism

separate but equal doctrine

The doctrine established by Plessy v Ferguson (1896) that African Americans could constitutionally be kept in separate but equal facilities.

Plessy v. Ferguson

An 1896 Supreme Court decision that provided a constitutional justification for segregation by ruling that a Louisiana law requiring "equal but separate accommodations for the White and colored races" was constitutional.

with all deliberate speed

Schools were required to integrate" ___ ___ _________ ________". The Supreme Court realized that the change would be slow particularly in the South and did not want to set a concrete timeline.

Kerner Commission

Also known as the "National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders",

Blockbusting

A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.

Boers

Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Afrikaners.

Afrikaans

Language of the Boers in South Africa.

homelands

The name given to the 10 designated areas assigned to black people in South Africa under the Apartheid system.

African National Congress

ANC, An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality

Nelson Mandela

Leader of the African National Congress who was jailed for his opposition to apartheid in South Africa. He was later elected president in 1994 when free elections were established, and was instrumental in a new democratic constitution being written in 1996.

Nationality

Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.

Sinhalese

The Indic language spoken by the people of Sri Lanka

Tamil

A language of southern India; also, the people who speak that language

Partition

Describes the 1947 division of the British colony of India into the nations of India and Pakistan.

nationalism

A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country.

centripetal force

An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state. Nationalism for example.

Sri Lanka

The island nation that is located off the southeastern tip of the subcontinent of South Asia, formerly known as Ceylon; war ravaged economy; insurgent state problems between the Sinhalese and Tamil groups.

socialist realism

Attempt within the USSR to relate formal culture to the masses in order to avoid the adoption of Western European cultural forms; begun under Joseph Stalin; fundamental method of Soviet fiction, art, and literary criticism.

Bulgaria

This slavic state was established as Russia's satellite under the Treaty of San Stefano, during Soviet occupation its cultural differences were repressed and forced the migration of millions of people of Turkish descent.

Yugoslavia

Country in the Balkans which existed during the often-tumultous interwar era of 1918-1939. Its provinces were named (from north to south) Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, while the regions of Kosovo and Vojvodina remained as municipalities of the Serbian province.

Slovenia

A southeastern European nation formed after the breakup of Yugoslovia.

multi-ethnic state

A state that contains more than one ethnicity; the different ethnicities all contribute cultural features to the formation of a single nationality, Example Belgium.

Belgium

A multi-ethnic state ,, The size of Maryland, has two groups, the Flemings and the Walloons. Also the country that in the 1960's, Rwanda and Burundi gained their independence from.

Wallons

French speaking people of Belgium

Flemish

Of or relating to Flanders(Dutch- speaking people) or its people or language or culture, one of the two major ethnic groups in belgium.

multinational states

A single state or government ruling over people of many distinct ethnic identities, have traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities. Example is United Kingdom.

Wales

European country that is part of the island of Great Britain and the sovereign state of the United Kingdom

Act of Union of 1536

With this act of Parliament, Britain formally absorbed Wales into the United Kingdom.

1801 Act of Union

With this act of Parliament, Britain formally absorbed Ireland into the United Kingdom

Eritrea

Strategic location along coast of Red Sea. For centuries it was part of Ethiopia, after a 30 year civil war it became an independent nation in 1991.

Somalia

This country is located on the Horn of Africa and is a failed state(no central government/anarchy); Many ethnic problems are destabilizing the entire region. Modern Day Piracy also exists.

Rwanda

The country where genocide took place between Hutu and Tutsi in 1994

Hutus

Majority ethnicity in Rwanda; gained power after colonizers left, slaughtered the Tutsi minority.

Tutsi

Ethnic minority of Rwanda-Burundi; ruled over Hutu people --- Later when they lost control of the Rwandan government they become the primary target of the genocide.

Joseph Mobutu

Seized power of Congo in 1965 and renamed in Zaire he maintained control through a combination of force, one-party rule, and gifts to supporters. Successfully withstood several armed rebellions. Overthrown in 1998 by rebel leader Kabila.

Los Angeles Riots

The most violent urban uprising in US history, these 1992 events, caused 53 deaths, thousands of injuries, and more than a billion dollars in property losses, the outrage was fueled by anger over racial inequality and by the acquittal of 3 white police officers on police brutality charges--even after the TV broadcast of a bystander's videotape that showed the officers severely beating a black man named Rodney King; 2 officers were later convicted of civil rights violations in federal court

Marshall Tito

Yugoslavian Dictator who broke with Stalin and developed his own form of communism (Titoism), tried to bring peace with the Serbs, after he died Yugoslavia broke up. Only independent communist state.

Bosnia

Political chaos occurred between Serbs, Croats, and Bosnian Muslims after its independence (Serbs use of Genocide on Bosnian Muslims); the 1995 Dayton Accords established some type of stability

Kosovo

The region of Yugoslavia that had autonomy until Milosovic attempted to crush the Albanian group with ethnic cleansing; 1999 NATO used military strikes against Yugoslavia until the crisis came to an end in 1999

balkanized

A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries. Steeped into Kosovo to stop the Serb's genocide.

Balkinization

The process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicity.

Dayton Accords

The peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14, 1995. These accords put an end to the three and a half year long war in Bosnia.

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