reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case
reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
Cognito Ergo Sum
Statement meaning "I think; therefore, I am." It was said by Renee Descartes after using deductive reasoning to prove his existence.
Bacon coined this term, meaning "The New Organon" or system of investigation. He attacked scholastic belief that most truth was already discovered and only needed explanations.
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
The teaching of René Descartes that the mind or spirit constitutes one reality while the body is something completely different, separate and apart from mind.
a Dutch journalist who called for an international code based on natural law. Believed that one body of rules could reduce the dealing of governments to a system of reason and order
Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
Wealth of Nations
Major work of Adam Smith that explained his laissez faire principle. Attacked government participation in economics. Also argued a nation's wealth stems from its productivity.
The Spirit of Laws
This work by Montesquieu called for a separation of powers and heavily influenced the formation of American government
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
Wrote The Progress of the Human Mind. He identified humans will go through 10 stages of progress. They were about to enter the tenth where humans will be perfect in understanding.
the doctrine that states that government generally should not intervene in the marketplace
an annual direct tax, usually on land or property, that provided a regular source of income for the French monarchy
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
most aggressive reformer of his era; radical royal reformer of Austria; introduced legal reforms, freedom of the press, supported freedom of worship (even Protestants, Orthodox Christians, and Jews); abolished serfdom and ordered that peasants be paid for their labor with cash; most of his reforms were undone after his death
1870'S - King of Belgium. Began imperial domain in Africa. He privately hired Stanley to represent him in signing treaties with local rulers. At the Berlin Conference of 1885, the Congo Free State was authorized under Leopold's private rule. Became notorious for exploitation of rubber, ivory and minerals and peoples. Belgian government took over from Leopold the year before his death in 1908.
Political party in Britain controlled by aristocracy.
British party more responsive to commercial and manufacturing interests.