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Britain

The republican idea of a just society in which selfish interests were subordinated to the common good took deep root in ___'s North American colonies.

mercantilism

The theory of ___ held that colonies existed primarily to provide the mother country with raw materials as well as a market for exports.

non-British

British mercantilism forbade the importation of any ___ goods into the colonies.

economic benefits

British mercantilism provided the colonies with substantial ___ such as military protection and guaranteed markets for certain goods.

repay the debt Britain had incurred in defending its North American colonies

The fundamental motive behind the steep new taxes in the 1760s was to ...

denied

Americans generally ___ the right of Parliament to tax the colonies to provide money for defense.

accepted

Americans generally ___ the right of Parliament to legislate about colonial affairs.

treated as British citizens

When Americans first cried "no taxation without representation," they wanted to be ...

did not want

Americans ___ to be represented in British Parliament.

Stamp Act

The colonies finally forced repeal of the ___ by organizing political protests and enforcing nonimportation agreements against British goods.

less

Colonial rebellion against the new Townshend Acts was ___ organized than the earlier Stamp Act protests.

Boston Massacre

The ___ led the British government to repeal the Townshend Acts.

importation of British tea

Massachusetts Governor Thomas Hutchinson provoked a crisis in Boston by enforcing the ...

Quebec Act

The colonists considered the ___ especially oppressive because they thought it would extend the domain of Roman Catholicism.

mother country

The British theory of mercantilism held that the colonial economy should be carefully controlled to serve the ___'s needs.

revolutionary fervor among many ordinary American men and women

The mobilization of nonimportation policies against the Stamp Act was politically important because it aroused ...

colonial resistance to the Townshend Acts

The British troops killed in the Boston Massacre had been sent to the city as a result of ...

Port of Boston

The British reacted to the Boston Tea Party by closing the ___ until damages were paid and order restored.

the revenues from the taxes would support British officials and judges in America

American colonists especially resented the Townshend Acts because ...

Catholic jurisdiction, non-jury judicial system

The passage of the Quebec Act aroused intense American fears because it extended ___ and a ___ into the western Ohio country.

The Association

The most important action the Continental Congress took to protest the Intolerable Acts was forming ___.

complete boycott of all British goods

The purpose of The Association was to impose a ...

Lord North

The British parliamentary government at the time of the American Revolution was headed by ___.

Ireland, France

The American rebellion was especially dangerous to the British because they were also worried about possible revolts in ___ and war with ___.

Whig party

The British political party that was generally more sympathetic to the American cause was the ___.

enlist foreign soldiers, Loyalists, and Native Americans in their military forces

One of the advantages the British enjoyed in the impending conflict with the colonies was the ability to ...

defensively on a large, agriculturally self-sufficient continent

One of the advantages the colonists enjoyed in the impending conflict with Britain was fighting ...

both the American patriot and British loyalist

In the Revolutionary War, African-Americans fought in ... military forces.

mercantilism

The basic economic and political theory by which 17th and 18th century European powers governed their overseas colonies

Navigation Acts

The set of Parliamentary laws, first passed in 1650, that restricted colonial trade and directed it to the benefit of Britain

enumerated

The term for products, such as tobacco, that could be shipped only to England and not to foreign markets

admiralty courts

Hated British courts in which juries were not allowed and defendants were assumed guilty until proven innocent

virtual representation

British government theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even though they did not vote for its members

nonimportation agreements

The effective form of organized colonial resistance against the Stamp Act, which made homespun clothing fashionable

tea

The product taxed under the Townshend Acts that generated the greatest colonial resistance

Committees of Correspondence

Underground networks of communication and propaganda, established by Samuel Adams, that sustained colonial resistance

Catholicism

Religion that was granted toleration in the trans-Allegheny West by the Quebec Act, arousing deep colonial hostility

hessians

German mercenaries hired by George III to fight the American revolutionaries

continentals

Paper currency authorized by Congress to finance the Revolution that depreciated to near worthlessness

minutemen

Rapidly mobilized colonial militiamen whose refusal to disperse sparked the first battle of the Revolution

redcoats

Popular term for British regular troops

John Hancock

Wealthy president of the Continental Congress and "King of the Smugglers"

George Grenville

British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act

Stamp Act

Legislation passed in 1765 but repealed the next year, after colonial resistance made it impossible to enforce

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

Male and female organizations that enforced the nonimportation agreements, sometimes by coercive means

"Champagne Charley" Townshend

Minister whose clever attempt to impose import taxes nearly succeeded, but eventually brewed trouble for Britain

Crispus Attucks

Alleged leader of radical protesters killed in Boston Massacre

George III

Stubborn ruler, lustful for power, who promoted harsh ministers like Lord North

Samuel Adams

Zealous defender of the common people's rights and organizer of underground propaganda committees

Boston Tea Party

Event organized by disguised "Indians" to sabotage British support of a British East India Company monopoly

Intolerable Acts

Harsh measures of retaliation for a tea party, including the Boston Port Act closing that city's harbor

Thomas Hutchinson

British governor of Massachusetts whose stubborn policies helped provoke the Boston Tea Party

First Continental Congress

Body led by John Adams that issued a Declaration of Rights and organized The Associated to boycott all British goods

Marquis de Lafayette

19-year-old major general in the Revolutionary army

Baron von Steuben

Organizational genius who turned raw colonial recruits into tough professional soldiers

Quartering Act

Legislation that required colonists to feed and shelter British troops

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