Eighteenth-century philosophical movement that began in France; its emphasis was on the preeminence of reason rather than faith or tradition; it spread concepts from the Scientific Revolution.
Labor source in the Americas; wealthy planters would pay the European poor to sell a portion of their working lives, usually seven years, in exchange for passage to the New World and a parcel of land at the end of the working term.
Male dominated society where family line is traced through the father
Salem Witch Trials
Outbreak of widespread hysteria that resulted in the execution of nineteen people.
The primary export crop of a region; the crop on which the region's economy rests. In the Chesapeake colonies, the staple was tobacco; farther south, it was rice or indigo. In later years, sugar was important in some areas on the mainland, but in time the classic staple--cotton--came to dominate the South's economy. These crops were intended to be sold at market rather than used for the subsistence of the family.
System of private classes taught in the home by widows or unmarried women.
A "falling away from." Puritans of the seventeenth and eighteenth century were deeply concerned about the religious declension in the Massachusetts Bay.
Massachusetts preacher and leader of the First Great Awakening, remembered for his vivid descriptions of hell.
Revival of the middle decades of the eighteenth century that deepened the influence of older, more emotional forms of Protestantism throughout the colonies.
Sermons of despair preached by ministers in the face of waning piety. Is a longstanding religious and literary genre used throughout history.
Horrific journey across the Atlantic experienced by slaves in crowded, unsanitary boats; the trip was often fatal.
The social unit composed of father, mother, and children.
German immigrants who left the Palatinate to mostly settle in the Mid-Atlantic colonies.
Powerful open-air preacher who made several evangelizing tours through the colonies from 1739 to1741.
Royal Society of London
The leading English scientific organization, which included Benjamin Franklin.
The practice of passing all inherited property to one's firstborn son.
French Protestants of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries; they settled in English colonies after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
Famed colonial printer, scientist, and politician who invented the lightning rod and was instrumental in the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution.
Medical theory which argued that health was governed by a balance of bodily fluids.
he adherence to the belief that salvation comes through the personal recognition of one's sins, the awareness of one's inability to save oneself, and the acceptance of Christ as the means of redemption. The process is usually a highly emotional one that culminates in the rebirth ("born again" state) of the sinner and his or her acceptance as one of the evangelical community of believers.
The division of society into recognizable groups based on wealth, education, family ties, etc.
The first American college, established in 1636 by Puritan theologians.
The Royal African Company
Had a monopoly on the slave trade until around 1695
The Southern Economy
Based on tobacco, rice, and indigo
Based on families making things to sell
Lumbering, mining, and fishing
Elaborate coastal trade (New England, Africa, West Indies)
Defined as a distinctive way of life up until the civil war
The most daring and controversial scientific experiment of the eighteenth century