A community characterized by the desire for self-rule.
A status which indicates that an individual has all of the same rights and obligations as others upon whom the same status is conferred. In a liberal democratic state, this status confers the right to participate in the political process and the right to be represented by elected officials.
A state that sustains globalization and responds to its pressures through practices of extra-territoriality, pooled sovereignty, and mechanisms of global governance.
A normative environmental framework which originally emphasized intergenerational equity, but which now also seeks to find a balance between socio-economic development and environmental protection. The redefinition of the concept has exposed North-South Disagreements about the need to transfer technology and resources to poorer countries.
Areas and resources that do not fall within the jurisdiction of any single sovereign state (e.g. the high seas, the moon, Antarctica).
A non-essentialist view of nature, which supports genetic modification of organisms in order to patent superior forms of life. Proponents support biodiversity conversation.
An emerging environmental principle that argues where there is the likelihood of environmental damage, banning an activity should not require full and definitive scientific proof.
The ability of real-time communications technology, via news media, to provoke major responses from domestic audiences and political elites to both global and national events.
The theoretical camp argues that the media is an extension of the public sphere. The media informs the public and acts as a watchdog for the public interest. Proponents of this theory advocate consumer choice and emphasize the range of choices available to consumers, which help offset media bias.
A theoretical position that highlights the concentrated corporate ownership of the media. From this view, the media encourages the belief that the existing hierarchical structure of society is beneficial for everyone.
A theoretical position that argues media messages are polysemic and contingent on the context and social position of the audience member.
A U.S. military strategy designed to make journalists sympathetic to soldiers by limiting their autonomy in and freedom to report from battlefronts. The strategy makes reporters wholly dependent upon/bonded with a group of armed soldiers for protection in a hostile environment .
An ethical position or philosophy which denotes identification with individuals, communities, cultures, and ideas that transcend the borders of one's own country.
A vision of globalization that re-imagines a world in which people are governed by overlapping authorities and identities, just as they were before the birth of the modern state system.
Tragedy of Commons
Garrett Hardin coined this phrase to describe the conflict between rational self-interest and group-interests with regard to a property that is help in common. He argued that individuals pursuing their utility-maximizing self-interest an open access resource may bring about a disaster for the community as a whole.
A landmark 1987 agreement which helped to reduce stratospheric ozone depletion caused by the production of CFCs (Chlorofluorocrabons) which were once commonly used as propellants in a range of household products. Environmentalists had hoped that this agreement would serve as a model for an agreement to reduce carbon emissions and therefore global warming.
A Transnationally organized group of scientists and policy makers who seek to influence the development of an environmental regime (e.g. climatologists seek to influence the global warming regime).
A market mechanism which allows industries and individuals to balance out their production of greenhouse gasses or "carbon footprint" by purchasing land that will be planted with carbon absorbing trees. Critics argue that this approach does not provide as much incentive to reduce greenhouse emissions as an alternate approaches.
A conceptual framework that begins with natural system within which humanity exists as opposed to conceptualizations, which see nature as exterior to the individual human being.
A market mechanism through which actors buy and sell the rights to pollute a particular chemical compound. Over the long term, the number of permits is gradually reduced. The objective is to provide an incentive to produce more efficiently and to make alternative forms of energy production more competitive.