The sluggishness or apparent resistance an object offers to change in its state of motion.
Distance traveled per time
the speed of an object and specification of its direction of motion.
rate at which velocity changes with time; the change in velocity may be in magnitude or direction or both
state of fall free from air resistance and other forces except for gravity.
The quantity of matter in an object
The gravitational force exerted on an object by the nearest most-massive body
the fundamental SI unit of mass. One kilogram is the amount of mass in 1 liter of water
the SI unit of force. One Newton is the force that will give an object of mass 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/s squared
The quantity of space an object occupies
any influence that can cause an object to be accelerated, measured in Newton's
the state of an object or system of objects for which any impressed forces cancel to zero and no acceleration occurs.
an object that is not moving and has 0 acceleration.
an object that is moving, without accelerating.
the resistive forces that arise to oppose the motion or attempted motion of an object past another with which is in contact.
the speed at which the acceleration of a falling object terminates because friction balances the weight.
the product of the mass of an object and its velocity.
the product of the forces acting on an object and the time during which it acts.
Relationship of Impulse and Momentum
impulse is equal to the change in the momentum of the object that the impulse acts on.
Conservation of Momentum
when no external net force acts on an object or system of objects, no change of momentum takes place.
collision in which colliding objects rebound without lasting deformation or the generation of heat
a collision in which the colliding objects become distorted and generates heat during the collision.
Newtons 1st Law
Every object continues in a state of rest, or in a state of motion in a straight line at a constant speed, unless it is compelled to change that stare by forces exerted upon it.
Newtons 2nd Law
The acceleration produced by a net force on an object is directly proportional to the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
Newtons 3rd Law
Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object.
Mutual action between objects in which each one exerts an equal and opposite force on the other.
The action and reaction pair of forces that constitute an interaction.
An arrow drawn to scale so that its length represent the magnitude of a force and its direction of the force.
an arrow drawn to scale so that its length represents the magnitude of the velocity and its direction represents the direction of motion.
the net force of a combination of two or more vectors.
parts into which a vector can be separated and that act indifferent directions from the vector.
the combination of all forces that act on an object.
A quantity that specifies direction and magnitude.
the force that supports an object against gravity, sometimes called normal force.
The resistive force that opposes the motion or attempted motion of an object through a fluid or past another object with which it is in contact.
The force of friction acting on an object due to its motion through air.
The time that one's feet are off the ground during a vertical jump.
The Law Of Universal Gravititation
every mass in the universe attracts every other mass with a force that for two masses is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance separation them.
Inverse Square Law
a law relating the intensity of an effect to the inverse square of the distance from the cause.
a condition encountered in free-fall wherein a support force in lacking.
the product of the force and the distance through which the force moves
The rate time of work
the property of a system the that enables it to do work
the stored energy that a body possesses because of its position
Energy of Motion
Conservation of Energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed
Conservation of Energy Machines
the work output of any machine cannot exceed the work input
the percent of the work put into a machine that is converted into useful work output.
the transfer and distribution of heat energy that moves from molecule to molecule within a substance
the transfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid by means of currents in the heated fluid
the transfer of energy at the speed of light by means of electronic waves.
Newtons Law Of Cooling
the rate of loss of heat with time from an object is proportional to the excess temperature of the substance over the temperature of its surroundings
Green House Effect
the heating effect of a medium such as glass or the earth's atmosphere that is transparent to the short-wavelength radiation of sunlight but opaque to long-wavelength terrestrial radiation
the study of heat and its transformation to other form of energy
the lowest possible temperature that a substance may have
the total of the molecular energies - kinetic energy and potential energy- internal to a substance.
First Law Of Thermodynamics
a restatement of the law of energy conservation, usually as it applies to a system involving changes in temperature
a process, usually of expansion or compression, wherein no heat enters of leaves a system
Second Law Of Thermodynamics
heat will never spontaneously flow from a cold object to a hot object.
a device that changes thermal energy to mechanical work
the change of phase at the surface of a liquid as it passes to the gaseous phase
the change of phase form gas to liquid
a measure of the hotness and coldness of substances, related to the average kinetic energy per molecule in a substance, measured in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit or in Kelvin's.
the thermal energy that flows from a substance of higher temperature to a substance of lower temperature, commonly measured in calories or joules.
Specific Heat Capacity
the quantity of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 Celsius degree.
the rapid state of evaporation that takes place within the liquid as well as at its surface.
the process of changing phase from a solid to a gas without passing through the liguid phase (dry ice)
Heat Of Fusion
The amount of energy to change phase from solid to liquid (and vice versa.)
Heat Of Vaporization
The amount of energy required to change phase from liquid to gas (and vice versa.)
A wave form traced by simple harmonic motion.
For a wave or vibration, the maximum displacement on either side of the equilibrium (midpoint) position.
The distance between successive crests, troughs, or identical parts of a wave.
For a vibrating body or medium, the number of vibrations per unit time.
The SI unit of frequency.
the time required for a vibration or a wave to make a complete cycle; equal to 1/frequency.
The speed with which waves pass a particular point: wave speed=frequency X wavelength.
A wave in which the medium vibrates in a direction perpendicular (transverse) to the direction in which the wave travels.
A wave in which the medium vibrates in a direction parallel (longitudinal) with the direction in which the wave travels.
Condensed region of the medium through which a longitudinal wave travels.
Rarefied region of the medium through which a longitudinal wave travels.
The pattern formed by superposition of different sets of waves, which produces mutual reinforcement in some places and cancellation in others.
A stationary wave pattern formed in a medium when two sets of identical waves pass through the medium in opposite directions.
The change in frequency of wave motion resulting in motion of the sender or the receiver.
The V-shaped wave made by an object moving across a liquid surface at a speed greater than the wave speed.
the cone-shaped wave made by an object moving at supersonic speed through a fluid.
The loud sound resulting from a shock wave.
Describes a sound of frequency too low to be heard by the normal human ear----below 20 hertz.
Describes a sound of a frequency too high to be heard by the normal human ear---above 20,000 hertz.
The bending of a wave, either through a non-uniform medium or from one medium to another, caused by differences in wave speed.
The setting up of vibrations in an object by a vibrating force.
A frequency at which an elastic object naturally tends to vibrate, so that minimum energy is required to produce a forced vibration or to continue vibration at the frequency.
The lowest frequency of vibration, or the first harmonic. In a string, the vibration makes a single segment.
The response of a body when a forcing frequency matches it natural frequency.
A series of alternate reinforcements and cancellations produced by the interference of two waves of slightly different frequency, heard as a throbbing effect in sound waves.
The characteristics timbre of a musical sound.
One of the frequencies present in complex tone.
A partial tone that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency.
An energy-carrying wave emitted by vibrating electrical charges (often electrons) and composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that regenerate one another.
The range of electromagnetic waves that extends in frequency from radio waves to gamma rays.
The term applied to materials through which light can pass in straight lines.
Additive Primary Colors
The three colors—red, blue, and green.
Subtractive Primary Colors
the three colors of absorbing pigments---magenta, yellow, and cyan.
Any two colors that, when added, will produce white light.
The bending of light that passes around an obstacle.
The result of superposing different waves of the same wavelength. Constructive interference results from crest-to-crest reinforcement; destructive interference results from crest-to-through cancellation.
The alignment of the transverse electric vectors that make up electromagnetic radiation.
The return of light rays from a surface in such a way that the angle at which a given ray is returned is equal to the angle at which it strikes the surface.
The bending of an oblique ray of light when it passes from one transparent medium to another.
Law Of Reflection
The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.
The minimum angle of incidence inside a medium at which a light ray is totally reflected.
Total Internal Reflection
The total reflection of light raveling within a medium that strikes the boundary of another medium at an angle at, or greater than, the critical angle.
A lens that is thicker in the middle than at the edges.
A lens that is thinner in the middle than at the edges.
An image formed by light rays that do not converge at the location of the image.
An image formed by light rays that converge at the location of the image.
Limitations on the formation of perfect images, which are inherent, to some degree, in all optical systems.
The emission of electrons from a metal surface when light shines on it.