method of learning in which a neutral stimulus can be used to elicit a response that is usually a natural response to a stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
an automatic response to a particular natural stimulus, such as salivation to meat
a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response
an acquired response that is under the control of (conditional on the occurrence of) a stimulus
conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
the state of being first in order, rank, importance, etc.
the principle that what is learned last is learned best and lodges most firmly in one's mind
are memories of facts, including names, images and events. They are also called declarative memories.
memories that you're unaware of having but make you behave a certain way also know as non-declaritive memories
Rehearsal in which meaning is added to the material to be remembered
repeating over and over again in order to maintain its availability in your memory
a general feeling of having lost all hope and of pessimism
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
the self-perception of bodily changes produces emotional experience (one is sad because one cries)
The theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion
Schachter-Singer's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities
an intense or extreme enthusiasm or excitement
a mental disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
the treatment of mental or emotional problems by psychological means
psychotherapy designed to help an individual come to a better awareness and understanding of his/her feelings, motivations and actions; includes psychoanalysis, Gestalt, client-centered therapy.
psychotherapy that seeks to extinguish or inhibit abnormal or maladaptive behavior by reinforcing desired behavior and extinguishing undesired behavior
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions