Science chapters 1-6

76 terms by thebass13 

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life science

the study of all living things

scientific method

a series of steps followed to solve problems

hypothesis

an explaination that is baced on prior scientific reasearch or observations and that can be tested

controlled experiment

an experiment that only tests one factor at a time by useing a comparison of a control group with an exparimental group

variable

a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis

model

a pattern, plan, representation, or discription designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system or concept.

theory

an explanation that ties together many hypothesis and explainations

law

a summary of many experimental results and observations; a law tells how things work

technology

the application of science for practical purposes; the use of tools, machines, materials, and processes to meet human needs

compound light microscope

an instument that maginifies small objects so that they can be seen easily by useing two or more lenses

electron microscope

a microscope that focuses a beam of electrons to maginfy objects

area

a measure of a surface or region

volume

a measure of a body or region in three demintional space

mass

the measure of the amount of matter in an object

temperature

a measure of how hot or cold something is

cell

the smallest unit that can perform all life processes; cells are covered by a membrain and have dna and cytoplasm

stimulus

anything that causes a reaction or change an organisum or any part of an organisum.

homeostasis

the maintnance of a constant internal state in a changeing environment

sexual reproduction

reproduction in which the sex cells from two parents unite, producing offsping that share traits from both parents.

sexual reproduction

reproductin that does not involve the unionof sex cells andin which one parent produces offspiring identical to itself

heredity

the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring.

metabolism

the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organisum.

producer

an organisum that can make its own food by using energy from its surroundings

consumer

an organisum that eats other oganisums or organic matter

decomposer

an organisum that gets energy by breaking down remains of dead organisms or or animal wasts and consuming or absorbing the nutrients

protein

a molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body stuctures and to regulate processes in the body

carbohydrate

a class of energy giving nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon hydrogen and oxygen

lipid

a type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water; fats and steriods are lipids

ATP

adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that acts as the main energy source for for cell processes (in the mitochondria)

phospholipid

a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a sturctual component in cell membrains

nuecleic acid

a molecule made up of subunits called nuecleotides

cell membrain

a phospholipid layer that covers a cells surface; acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and a cells environment.

organelle

one of the small bodies in a cells cytoplasm that are speciize to prerform a specific function

nuecleus

in a eukaryotic cell, a membrain bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction.

prokaryote

an organisum that consists of a single cell and does not have a nuecleus

eukaryote

an organisum made up of cells thathave a nuecleus enclosed by a membrain; eukaryotes include animals, plants, or fungi,but not archaea or bacteria

cell wall

a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrain and provides support to the cell in plant cells only

ribosome

cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protien syntheisis

endoplasmic reticulum

a system of membrains that is found in a cells cytoplasmand that assists in the production, processing and transporting of proteins and in the production of lipids.

mitochondrion

in eukaryotic cells the cell organelle is surounded by two membrains and that is the site of cellular resparation.

golgi complex

cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell

vesicle

a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell

lysosome

a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes

tissue

a group of simular cells that perform a common function

organ

a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body

organ system

a group of organs that work together to form body functions

organism

a living thing; any thing that can carry out life processes on its own

structure

the arrangemant of parts in an organism

function

the special, normal, or proper activity of an organ or part

diffusion

the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density

osmosis

the diffution of water through a semipermiable membrain

passive transport

the movement of substances accros a cell membrain without the use of energy by the cell

active transport

the movement of substances accros a cell membrain that reqires the cell to use energy

endocytosis

a process in which a cell membrain surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell

exocytosis

the process in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that then move to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrain.

photosynthesis

the process by which plants, alge, and some bacteria use sunlight carbon dioxide and water to make food.

cellular respiration

the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food

fermintation

the breakdown of food without the use of oxygen

cell cycle

the life cycle of a cell

chromosome

in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nuecleus that are made up of dna and protien; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of dna

homologous chromosomes

chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure

mitosis

in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same numer of chromosomes

cytokinesis

the division of the cytoplasum of the cell

heredity

the passing of genetic traits from parent to ofspring

dominate trait

the trait that completly masks the recessive trait

recessive trait

a trait that is completely covered by the dominate trait

gene

one set of instructions for an inherited trait

allele

one of the alternative forms of agene that govern a characteristic, such as hair color

phenotype

an organisms appearance or other detectible characteristic

genotype

the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more traits

meiosis

a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreses to half the originalnumber by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells

sex chromosome

one of the pairs of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual

pedigree

a diagram that shows the occurence of a genetic trait in several generations in a family

DNA

DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, a molecule that is present in all living cellsand that contains all the information that determinds the traits that a living thinginharits and needs to live.

nuecleotide

in a nucleic- acid chain a subunit that consits of a sugar, aphospate and a nitrogenous base

mutation

a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule.

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