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Elements of drama include...

characters, action, spectacle, audience

Greek drama originated as a ritual to the god ________, to whom a choral ode called a ________ was chanted.

Dionysus, dithyramb

Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King in the ______ century, considered the "golden age" of Greek drama.

5th century BC

The name of the religious festival which sponsored the great dramatic competitions of ancient athens was called....

the City Dionysia

At the center of the ancient Greek theatre was the___________, or dancing place, and behind it, an oblong building or______ was later added.

orchestra, skene

Mimesis, the term Aristotle used to describe drama, means:

an imitation of an action

Climactic plot structure features:

rising action leading to a climax

An experience of catharsis (the purging of pity and fear) on the part of an audience member is most nearly a result of which function of drama...

identification and empathy with a dramatic character's experience

The "first actor"

Thespis

His Roman "closet" tragedies (probably not performed) would prove highly influential to Shakespeare

Seneca

Added a second actor to drama

Aeschylus

Philosopher who poetics formulated the first criteria of drama

Aristotle

Added a third actor and possibly some scene painting

Sophocles

The chorus of Sophocles' Oedipus Rex feature 15 members and functioned as _________.

concerned citizens of Thebes

Oedipus was adopted by _________ who were King and Queen of ________.

Polybus and Merope, Cornith

Oedipus conquered a mythical beast, the _____, and became king of ______.

Sphinx, Thebes

Who do the character in Oedipus Rex consult for information and guidance?

the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi

Where does Sophocles have Oedipus blind himself?

offstage out of view

"so, you mock my blindness? Let me tell you this. You with your precious eyes, you're blind to the corruption of your life..."

Tiresais

"Oh, no no. I think I've just called down a dreadful curse upon myself- I simply didn't know!"

Oedipus

"Don't you know? You've really nothing to fear. Polybus was nothing to you... not in blood."

Messanger from Cornith

"He rips off her brooches, the long gold pins holding her robes - and lifting them high, looking straight up into the points. He digs them down the sockets of his eyes..."

Messanger from inside the palace

A domestic style of comedy celled Atellan farce contributed what important aspect to Roman comic drama?

stock characters

How did the Roman theatre architecture differ from the Great theatre?

its was freestanding, not built into a hillside, the stage (pulpitum) was elevated, the size of the orchestra was reduced, the scaena or scenic background was larger and more ornate

During the middle ages, drama was revived through the_______, a short Biblical passage set to music, the most famous of which is the ______.

trope, Quem Quaeritis

Everyman, the most famous example of a ______ play, uses the technique of ______, (where abstract ideas are given concrete form) to convey its ideas.

morality, allegory

Mystery plays performed in cycles, explored_________ and were presented by________.

biblical stories, trade guilds

The only character who accompanies Everyman to his grave is...

Good Deeds

What significance did the ban on religious drama have on the theatre?

increased focused on classical and secular texts, theatre no longer was a community sponsored event, encouraged the rise of "national" drama, theatre now had to survive on its commercial and artistic merits

From Everyman: "Lo, yonder I see Everyman walking: Full little he thinketh on my coming."

Death

From Everyman: "For all unready is my book of reckoning. But twelve year and I might have a biding, my counting-book I would make so clear that my reckoning I should not need to fear."

Everyman

Twelfth Night: "I left no ring with her. What mean this lady? Fortune forbid my outside have not charmed her."

Viola (as Cesario)

Twelfth Night: "Why have you given me such clear lights of favor, bade me come smiling and cross-gartered to you; to put on yellow stockings...."

Malvolio

The device that Maria, Sir Toby and Sir Andrew use to fool Malvolio into believing that Olivia is in love with him is.....

a letter

Shakespeare used iambic pentameter because

it aided his actors in memorization, it aided the audience in listening, he was imitating classical forms, the form echoes the human heartbeat

When did Shakespeare live?

1564-1616

During the Renaissance in Europe, a move away from the permanent, ornate, universal background of the Roman (Terence) Stage and toward realistic scene painting was enabled by the development of....

one-point perspective drawing

This architectural feature helped to establish a single perspective on the play's action by framing the playing space

the proscenium arch

The "unities" of time, place and action are associated with this code of theatrical rules based on ancient Greek and Roman drama.

neoclassicism

This improvised comedy with stock character was hugely popular throughout Europe and would prove highly influential to Moliere

commedia dell' arte

In Moliere's Tartuffe, the play's single setting is...

Orgon's house

Moliere wrote and performed plays for King Louis XIV in what country?

France

In Tartuffe, Moliere uses what piece of stage furniture to enable Elmire, the wife, to prove Tartuffe's corrupt nature to Orgon, her husband?

a table

In Tartuffe, how is the action resolved?

an officer of the king intervenes on Orgon's behalf

The stage practice of removing the "fourth wall" so that the audience may seem to peek in on life as it happens before them is most closely associated with which movement?

realism

What is characteristic of the "well-made play?"

careful exposition, building of suspense, surprises and use of withheld information, a resolved ending

While some of his later works experimented with symbolism, Ibsen wrote and helped to establish what style?

realism

This book would prove influential in the development of theories supporting the rise of Realism

Darwin's The Origin of Species

Why did Ibsen name the play Hedda Gabler instead of Hedda Tesman?

it helps to establish the ambivalence of her new identity as Tesman's wife, it hearkens back to her more lofty social status (and potential) a General Gabler's daughter, it was her name when she flirted with Lovberg, it is an example of Ibsen's use of every element of the drama to tell his story

What does Hedda Tesman have in her new house that reminds her of her former home with General Gabler?

a piano, a portrait of her father, and a set of pistols

Which character has Hedda in his/her power at the end?

Judge Brack

What does Hedda fantasize will be in Lovberg's hair when he returns from Brack's party?

vine leaves

How does Hedda make sure that Lovberg's manuscript is never published?

she burns the manuscript

"Today, he ranks second only after Shakespeare as the world's most-performed playwright, a position that testifies to his dramatic art: shocking and novel when it was first presented to audiences, it has stood the test of time."

Ibsen

The "troubles" mentioned in The Cherry Orchard refer to what?

the emancipation of the serfs

Chekhov's plays are noted for:

new & subtle treatment of plot & action, complex & human characters which each have a story, use pauses in dialogue, evocative & sensual use of environment and setting

The success of Chekhov's plays was due in part to the realistic acting style taught by this co-founder and director of the Moscow Art Theatre

Konstantin Stanislavsky

Chekhov insisted that The Cherry Orchard was...

a comedy

Why is the cherry orchard to be sold?

to pay off debts

The distant, mournful sound that occurs during The Cherry Orchard is described by Chekhov sounding like...

a snapped string

What happens to Firs at the end of The Cherry Orchard?

he is forgotten and left behind in the house

Chekhov's portrayal of Mdme. Ranevskaya shows that

she is a flawed, yet sympathetic character

Chekhov's use of action is deceptive because the dialogue does not always necessarily reveal what's happening. This technique is called....

subtext

"Only the music of the flute is left on the darkening stage as over the house the hard towers of the apartment buildings rise into sharp focus, and the curtain fall."

Death of a Salesman

"The gods step into a cloud, which rises and moves forward over the orchestra and up beyond the balcony"

The Good Woman of Setzuan

"She moves about the room, raising her arms and clenching her fists as if in a frenzy. Then she flings back the curtains from the glass door and stands there, looking out."

Hedda Gabler

"Above this sofa stands a portrait of a handsome, elderly man in a general's uniform"

Hedda Gabler

"The sound of two carriages outside the house. The stage is empty. The sound outside get louder."

The Cherry Orchard

"Only the blue light of the sky falls upon the house and forestage, the surrounding area shows an angry glow of orange. As more light appears, we see a solid vault of apartment houses around the small, fragile-seeming home"

Death of a Salesman

The term "epic" theatre is most closely associated with which playwright?

Brecht

This playwright wanted his audience to react to the happening on stage as if at a boxing match, actively choosing one side over another

Brecht

A play calling for placards or projections listing the events about to occur in the next scene is most characteristic of which kind of drama?

"epic" or "Brechtian" theatre

This playwright sought to create a drama which was a clear alternative to traditional, climactic, Aristotelian drama. Rather, he wanted to engage the audience's powers of critical observation

Brecht

Brecht's technique of "alienation" or "estrangement" was sought through...

episodic play structure; harsh, garish, unrealistic lighting; plays set in a very different time or culture; use of music/songs in between scenes

Arthur Miller's original idea for the title of Death of a Salesman....

The Inside of His Head

There is a recurrent musical theme of a flute playing in Death of a Salesman. What connection does Willy have with the flute?

Willy's father used to make flutes

"I believe that the common man is apt a subject for tragedy in its highest sense as kings were...I think the tragic feeling is evoked in us when we are in presence of a character who is ready to lay down his life, if need to be, to secure on thing - his sense of personal dignity"

Arthur Miller

"The action should be as complicated and as simple as it is in life. People are eating dinner, just eating dinner... and all the while their happiness is being established or their live are broken up."

Chekhov

"He opens the refrigerator, searches in there, and takes out a bottle of mil. The apartment houses are fading out, ad the entire house and surroundings become covered with leaves. Music insinuates itself as the leaves appear"

Death of a Salesman

"A meadow. An old, lopsided, long-abandoned little chapel; near it a well, large stones that apparently were once tombstones, and an old bench... In the distance a row of telegraph poles... The sun will soon set"

The Cherry Orchard

"... throwing some of the sheets into the fire and whispering to herself."

Hedda Gabler

"Evening in the municipal park. Noise of a plane overhead... He takes a rope out of his pocket."

The Good Woman of Setzuan

"The stage is empty. There is the sound of doors being locked, then of the carriages driving away. It grows quiet. In the stillness there is the dull thud of an ax on a tree..."

The Cherry Orchard

"When I was 17 I walked into the jungle, and when I was 21 I walked out. And by God I was rich."

Uncle Ben Loman - Death of a Salesman

"And I looked at the pen and said to myself, what the hell am I grabbing this for? Why am I trying to become what I don't want to be? What am I doing in an office, making contemptuous, begging fool of myself, when all I want is out there, waiting for me the minute I say I know who I am!"

Biff Loman - Death of a Salesman

"Oh, my sins... I've always squandered money like a madwoman, an I married a man who did nothing but amass debts."

Madame Ranyevskaya - Cherry Orchard

"Just think... You grandfather, your great-grandfather, and all your ancestors were serf-owners, possessors of living souls. Don't you see that from every cherry tree... human beings are peering out at you? Don't you hear their voices?"

Trofimov, the student - Cherry Orchard

"He's not the finest character that ever lived. But he's a human being, and a terrible thing is happening to him."

Linda Loman - Death of a Salesman

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