a need or desire that energies and directs behavior
Drive Reduction Theory
physiological need arouses -> organism acts to reduce need (maintaining homeostasis)
Where we learn taste preferences
Parents, Previous Experiences
Social transition of taste preference
Triggered by low levels of water
Two types of thirst
Hypovolemic Thirst & Osmotic Thirst
Crave slightly salty water and loss of blood volume
Loss of blood -> loss of sodium -> sodium-specific need
Water crosses semipermeable membrane
Thirst is determined by what to organs?
Stomach and Throat
A set point. A Basic metabolic rate is maintained.
As a response to experience in the world, the autonomic nervous system creates physiological events such muscular tension, a rise in heart rate, perspiration, and dryness of the mouth
One must be (1) physically aroused and (2) able to cognitively label the arousal t
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System (Activator/Calmer)
Over consumption of water in a short period of time causes imbalance in...
sodium and potassium (hyponatremia)
Cells can't withstand the pressure and begin to die
Kwashiorkor "Disease of the Displaced Child"
inadequate protein intake when total calorie intake is good
Measures the ANS's reaction to various questions
Ekman & his faces
Trains police to recognize different emotions to detect lies
Facial expressions give us away Smile vs. Smile
Discovery through experimenting
Has been caused by bilateral lesions to the amygdala (calcification in humans)
Causes over reaction to all objects, hypoemotional, loss of fear, hypersexualiy, hyperorality
Iowa Gambling Task
includes testosterone and several other male hormones
includes Estradiol and other female hormones
Predominantly female hormone that prepares the uterus for implantation of the fertilized ovum. Also, promoted the maintenance of pregnancy
Precursor to female reproductive system
Precursor to male reproductive system
Sex is determined by what?
The SRY Gene
If the SRY is present...
Male Embryonic development
Developing testes produce...
testosterone and androgen
Testosterone causes Wolffian ducts to become...
Sexually dimorphic Nucleus (SDN)
Larger in males than females
generates a cyclic pattern of hormone release
Hypothalamus and pituitary glands interact to create...
Two areas that receive the greatest stimulation by sex hormones
Medical preoptic area and Ventromedial nucleus
Everitt and Stacey
Lesioned the MPOA in rats
Forefather of Stress
Walter Cannon (1929)
Dr. Hans Selye
General adaptation syndrome
General adaptation syndrome
1. Alarm, 2. Resistance, 3. Exhaustion
affects humans and animals differently
Body's reaction to acute stress
by secreting inhibiting hormones and various parts of your Nervous System help you deal with stressor and return to normal
When stress the body disables...
digestion, growth hormone, ovulation and sperm production, immune system, and pain