## Prentice Hall Science Explorer Inside Earth Chapter 2

##### Created by:

1booboo1  on December 13, 2011

Vocab

##### Classes:

Christian Brothers (CBS) 5th Grade 2012-2013

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# Prentice Hall Science Explorer Inside Earth Chapter 2

 FocusThe point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
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#### Definitions

Focus The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
Magnitude The measurement of an earthquakes strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults
Liquefaction The process by which an earthquakes violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud
Seismograph A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through earth.
Seismogram The record of an earthquakes seismic waves produced by a seismograph
Epicenter The point on earths surface directly above an earthquakes focus
Friction The force that opposed the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface
Stress A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
Tsunami A large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor
Aftershock An earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area
Types of Stress: Compression, tension, shearing
Compression Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
Tension Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
Shearing Stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions in a sideways movement.
Earthquake Measurements Richter Scale, Moment Magnitude Scale, Mercalli Scale
Richter Scale A scale that rates an earthquakes magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves
Moment Magnitude Scale A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake
Mercalli Scale A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause at a particular place
Types of Faults Reverse, Normal, and Strike-slip
Reverse Faults A type of fault where the hanging wall slide upward; caused by compression in the crust
Normal Fault A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust.
Strike-Slip Fault A type of fault in which rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motion
Instruments to monitor faults Tiltmeter, Laser-Ranging Device, and Creep Meter
Tiltmeter measures tilting or raising of the ground
Laser-Ranging Device uses laser beam to detect horizontal fault movement
Creep Meter uses a wire stretched across a fault to measure horizontal movement of the ground
Seismic Waves P waves, S waves and surface waves
P waves A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
S waves A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
Surface waves A type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach earth's surface

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