earth science

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32 terms · chapter 2

naturally occurring, solid, orderly crystalline structure, inorganic, well defined chemical composition

5 characteristics of minerals

mineral

any naturally occurring solid that posses and orderly crystalline structure and has a well defined chemical composition

rock

solid mass of minerals

element

substance that cannot be broken down any further

ionic bonds

bonding where electrons are transferred

covalent bonds

bonding where electrons are shared

metallic bonds

bonding where valence electrons are free to mingle about

mineral properties

luster, light transmission, color, streak, habit, tenacity, and hardness

luster

quality of light reflected

opaque

no light transmitted

translucent

light but no image

transparent

light and an image

hardness

resistance to being scratched

cleavage

shape when cut

silicon and oxygen

two main components of minerals

silicate minerals

minerals that are mostly silicon and oxygen

isotope

same protons different neutrons

tenacity

resistance to breaking

light silicates

have no iron or magnesium (non ferromagnesian)

non ferromagnesian

have no iron or magnesium (light silicates)

feldspar

widest mineral group

quartz

entirely silicon and oxygen

muscovite

mica family excellent cleavage

clay

product of weathering

dark silicates

ferromagnesian minerals

olivine group

glass luster conchoidal fracture
small rounded crystals
no cleavage

pyroxene group

complex minerals in the mantel

augite

most common pyroxene mineral
basalt part of the crust

amphibole group

hornblende different from augite because cleaves at 60 and 120 degrees

calcite

reactive version of dolomite

halite

salt

gypsum

plaster

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