AP US History- Unit 4

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study for midterm, apush, american pageant 12th edition

Frontier

A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.

Texas

area for which the US paid $10 million, it strengthened the South's bid for a transcontinental railroad

Population growth

huge population growths in both slaves(by reproduction) and whites(by immigration)

Land Speculation

buying and reselling of land to make a profit

Immigration

The influx of new individuals into a population from other areas.

Indian Removal

the nineteenth century policy of the government of the US to remove Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river

Ecological Imperialism

an aggressive and often heedless explotiation of the west. settlers often killed species to the point of extinction, and they farmed the lands dry. it was a hard land to live on, and ecological imperialism was sometimes the only way to survive and make a profit.

End of Era of Good Feeling

caused by:
o Panic of 1819
o Missouri Compromise

Whigs

party that favored a national bank, protective tariffs and eventually the abolition of slavery

Anti-Mason Party

movmn't in North and Midwest against Freemasonry, male fraternity of prominent middle- and upper-class men
evangelicals considered masons sacreligious, encouraged men to neglect families
opposed Jackson in election of 1828
first national political convention

Democrats

their philosophy war the stamp of Andrew Jackson, believing the federal government should be limited in power, except to a degree that it worked to eliminate social and economic arrangements that entrenched privilege and stifled equal opportunity.

Cotton Gin

a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers

Cotton Gin Effects

- Eli Whitney invented it in 1793
- made it possible for southern farmers to produce cotton more profitably
-increase amount in slave imports

Interchangeable Parts

identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring

Interchangeable Parts Effects

-made products easier to fix/make
-made products faster to fix/make

factory system

a system of manufacturing in which all the materials, machinery, and workers required to manufacture a product are assembled in one place

telegraph

apparatus used to communicate at a distance over a wire (usually in Morse code)

Steamboat

a boat that moves by the power of a steam engine, made it easier and quicker to travel goods

Second Great Awakening

A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Causes: the church was falling apart
Effects:abolition and reform movements

Transcendentalist

advocate of Transcendentalism, any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material

Mormons

church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT

Dorthea Dix

Tireless reformer, who worked mightily to improve the treatment of the mentally ill. Appointed superintendant of women nurses for the Union forces.

Temperance

restraint or moderation, especially in regards to alcohol or food

Women

lead many reform movements including temperance, abolition and suffrage

Utopian Socities

small societies whose member seek perfect social and political conditions
Success: in the end they all failed (for one reason or another)

Public Education Reform

Horace Mann thought public schools are necessary so people agreed to pay taxes for public schools

Hudson River School

the first coherent school of American ar, tactive from 1825 to 1870; painted wilderness landscapes of the Hudson River valley and surrounding New England

Washington Irving

American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).

James Fenimore Cooper

American novelist who is best remembered for his novels of frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans (1826).

Ralph Waldo Emerson

American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet that was influenced somewhat by the transcendentalism occurring at the time. He was important in building the status of American literature.

Edgar Allen Poe

(1809-1849). Orphaned at young age. Was an American poet, short-story writer, editor and literary critic, and is considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre. Failing at suicide, began drinking. Died in Baltimore shortly after being found drunk in a gutter.

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-transcendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet "A".

Herman Melville

American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick (1851), considered among the greatest American novels

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