Swords could not scratch his sin-stained skin
Oar fingers, Shadow of Death, Dragon Slayer
Four accented syllables per line
Five accented syllables per line
Love is like a freight train
Love rolls down the tracks
Love sprinted by, yelling goodbye
Unaccented, accented, unaccented, accented rhyme scheme
Four lines of poetry
Two lines of poetry
Enslave me so I will be free
That I may be caste, ravish me.
the work in relation to the world
the work in relation to itself
the work in relation to the reader
the work in relation to the author
the belief that words represent things that exist apart from man, that there is a center of meaning that all things are said to point back to
the rational side of the mind
the irrational side of the mind
intangible effect on the reader
In medias res
in the middle (of conflict)
stories follow laws of probability
stories have a sense of inevitability
a flaw that relates to the conflict (in a character)
Deus ex Machina
God out of the machine (cheap ending)
when one talks to someone who can't respond
a passage that overwhelms you; different worlds, values, feelings, ideas converge; can be heard again and again with equal pleasure; transcends time and space; echoes the soul; hides artistic endeavor
Anxiety of Influence
a struggle with a past master
language of the common people
a poet, historian, courtier, soldier, explorer, spy
a poem that idealizes rustic, country life
spiritual and philosophical topics, intensely emotional, intellectual thought (conceits, paradoxes)
cheerful poems on frivolous topics, carpe diem
sieze the day (theme of cavaliers)
What are the Fox's beliefs, and what are they called?
His beliefs are called Stoicism
-the whole world: one city/all men have same blood
-death: joining nature again (no afterlife)
-death is a part of the life cycle
What did Plato believe about the world of being and ideas?
Plato believed that ideas came from the World of Being, and they are corrupted in the World of Becoming and further corrupted in the World of a book
For what reasons did Plato kick the poets out of the republic?
1. Literature (a copy of a copy) leads us further from the time; assumed that author tries to represent this world in his writing.
2. Poetry appeals to our irrational side; we shouldn't encourage our irrational side which is emotional and untrustworthy
3. Poetry is the result of a mad possession by one god or another, and it's contagious.
How do the three sisters respond to their innate longing?
Redival: The fool's way
Orual: The way of the disillusioned sensible man
Psyche: The Christian Way
Judge Psyche's betrayal according to the four loves chart
Psyche showed agape (sacrificial love) towards Orual in betraying Orual because she sacrifices her love for ORual to her god. Psyche says that if she loves her god, she will love Orual more.
Names the four loves in Greek
Storge (Motherly Love), Phileo (Brotherly Love/Friendship), Eros (Romantic Love), Agape (Sacrificial Love)
How does the priest defend the Shadowbrute?
He argues that the Psyche is the best and the worst-the best person and at the same time the accursed. She is offered to the Shadowbrute because she is pure, but she puts on the sins (scapegoat) of the people. Loving and devouring can be interpreted to be that the god is overwhelming, and he consumer us.
What does the Priest of Essur need to learn?
the story of Istra (Psyche) and the worshipping of Istra are two completely different things
What do Arnom's changes to the temple represent?
They represent his effort to make the religion more acceptable and more intellectual.
What is the nature of the god? (Maximus)
Why does it confuse monotheism and polytheism? (Maximus)
Lawrence wanted his poem to relate to more people; he believes God accepts everyone
What are some aspects of a good first sentence?
It says something a little strange; makes a lot of info irrelevant; hooks the reader
What makes a good thesis statement?
It is controversial; It says something about the text you discuss exclusively; takes a position on existing argument between critics
What two things should a good topic sentence do?
Takes a position on an existing argument b/t critics; build an argument about the book not immediately apparent from simple reading of the novel
What needs to be in past tense and what in present?
Past tense: Anything about author's life
Present: Plot of the book, everything author does through/in the book
What are the dates of the Angle-Saxon Period?
Contrast the historical and legendary Arthur
Historical: Arturius, Celtic general who fought against Anglo-Saxons.
Legendary: King Arthur, English king
What was the world-wide era called during the Anglo-Saxon period?
How did the Roman alphabet come into English?
brought by St. Augustine in 597
What was composed around 700?
Why was Alfred the Great so great?
Unified Southern England and commissioned Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, insisted everything be written in English
What was unusual about The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle?
Written in English
How many percent of our words spoken daily are Anglo-Saxon?
What did Anglo-Saxons think about the length of their lives?
Life is short and everything fades
What did Anglo-Saxons think ruled every aspect of their lives?
What did Anglo-Saxons want to find, hoard, give, bury, etc.?
What hints tell us about Grendel's form?
descendent of Cain, big arm span, has hands, "sliding", gleaming eyes, massive jaws, big mouth, talons
What is Grendel's ancestry?
descendant of Cain
How does Beowulf's character break a rule of decorum?
He has no hamartia (flaw)
What determines who wins the battle in Beowulf?
Where is Herot and where did Beowulf come from?
Herot=island near Denmark, Beowulf came from Geatland
What is improbable about the fight?
Beowulf leans up on one arm and twists Grendel's claw back, Grendel snatched 30 men up and touched a door and knocked off hinges
What three literary devices are often in Anglo-Saxon literature?
kennings, alliteration, tetrameter
Presumably where has the husband gone and whom with? (The Wife's Lament)
He has gone to a far away country with his kinsmen
What mixed feelings does the wife have about her husband?
She does not love him anymore, but wishes they were still together
What quotations show the mix of feelings?
(The Wife's Lament)
"All that has failed and our love is as if it had never been."
What does she imagine is pursuing her husband? (The Wife's Lament)
What makes a song a ballad?
it is a narrative poem that tells a story
What deal do the husband and wife make? (Get up and bar the door)
a bet; whoever talked first would have to get up and bar the door
Describe the tone of this book (Sir Gawain)
What is the significance of the pentangle? (Sir Gawain)
Five points represent unity, they are woven together; they stand or fall together
How does courtly love affect Gawain's challenge with the lady?
It forces him to be courteous and witty at the same time, and never make the lady feel like she is being a temptress
In what ways is the Green Knight a type of Christ?
He comes at Christmas, allows himself to be tortured, the act symbolizes death and rebirth, he requires that we surrender our life to him, he points out our sin, he forgives completely, mistaken for devil, tests our love
Who wrote the Canterbury Tales?
What is the old man's wish? (the pardoner's tale)
that he could be young again
What sin do the rioters keep committing? (the pardoner's tale)
greed and betrayal
What are the dates of the Renaissance?
What term defines a person who is good at many things?
What makes a poem a sonnet?
14 line poem with 10 syllables per line, mostly iambic pentameter
What is the name for poems that idealize shepherd life?
Who wrote "the Passionate Shepherd to His Love"?
What are some of his idealistic promises? (the passionate shepherd)
They will sit on the rocks and watch shepherds feed their flock while they do nothing, they will be rich without working, golden buckles, silver dishes
What is her main objection to what he offers? (the nymph's reply)
She objects by saying that eventually everything fades, will be forgotten
What are impediments?
What fixed mark is love like? (sonnet 116)
How is time personified? (sonnet 116)
How does coral compare to her lips? (sonnet 130)
coral is far more red than her lips
How does he describe her breath? (sonnet 130)
What belies what in this poem? (Sonnet 130)
the woman belies false comparisons
What idea about beauty does Sonnet 130 contradict?
The idea that looks cannot get in the way of true love
What quotations show a sympathy with Shylock?
"You call me disbeliever, cutthroat dog, and spit upon my Jewish garbadin."
"Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions..."
Interpret the metaphor about shooting an arrow?
Shooting another arrow means that Bassanio wants to borrow more money from Antonio, so he can find the money he lost that belongs to Antonio (the other arrow)
Characterize the Neapolitan, British, and German princes
-Neapolitan: talks about his horses all the time.
-British: only knows one language, his clothes don't match (from different countries)
What do the inscriptions on the outside of each casket say?
-Gold: "Who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire."
-Silver: "Who chooseth me shall gain whatever he desires"
-Lead: "Who chooseth me shall yield his life and sacrifice all he has"
How does Shylock use pigs, cats, and bagpipes in his case?
He says he just hates Antonio like some people just hate pigs, cats, and bagpipes
Explain Bassanio's promise to Portia and why he breaks it
He promises to wear Portia's ring until he dies, he breaks it because the judge (Portia) asks for it after the case
What claims does Portia make about mercy?
it blesses the giver and the receiver
Interpret Lorenzo's speech about the stars
we can't be like the stars because we are under sin
What should God do to the door of his heart?
How well does Reason do his job?
Reason is a deputy, doesn't do his job well
Why would a man want God to ravish him?
To make him love God b/c we resist him
Why did God withhold rest from man?
So they would want the creator, not creation, make us seek him
Explain the conceit of the pulley
our lack of rest pulls us up to God, our blessings weigh us down
What latin phrase means "seize the day"? (to the virgins)
What is the best age, and why? (to the virgins)
young age, things get worse and worse when you grow older
How does he feel about how long he has loved her? (constant lover)
he can't believe it, feels good about himself
Why should the praise not go to him? (constant lover)
it should go to the woman because she is so beautiful
How many girls might he have loved in three days? (constant lover)
144 (a dozen dozen)
What will Lovelace do if she visits him?
lie down, entangle in her hair, fettered eyes
What are stone walls unable to do?
they are unable to make a prison
what statement shows Satan's idea about reality?
Mind is its own place, can make a Heaven of Hell and a Hell of Heaven
When Orual recognizes, "I am Ungit," what does she mean?
Orual's love is more of a consuming love that is wrapped up in herself
What aspects of this ballad are still stereotypical?
*Man was lazy
*Woman was the cook
*Burglars eat her food and she complained
How does Sir Gawain respond to his recognition?
Sir Gawain feels terrible, but the Green Knight is forgiving and humble, therefore Sir Gawain isn't afraid to hide his belt
What does Sonnet 116 imply about past relationships?
Love does not change
Explain the parallelism in Part 3.
Correlation of Hunts to the Temptations
Deer - Gawain hides and pretends to be asleep
Boar - She invites him to take her by force to she be would boorish to deny him
Fox - Gawain is sly in hiding the belt and going back on his word
What reversals take place? (The Pardoner's Tale)
*They try to kill death but death kills them
*They start the quest united and betray each other
*Gold is a positive symbol but it leads to their destruction
How is the audience led to feel about Jessica's character?
They are led to feel that she is careless and unappreciative
What details really bring out the stereotype of a Jew in Shylock?
self-righteous, commands justice, and is stingy
What does the court case show about people's attitudes toward religion in the Renaissance?
The people of the renaissance did not like religion because of the rules and regulations
What is the gist of each stanza?
1: If he had enough time, he would just sit and watch her; vegetable love
2: If she doesn't give her virginity to him, it will be to the worms and she will die; no life after death
3: They love like birds devouring their prey; we need to make most of our time
How do Christian and Hopeful escape Doubting Castle?
Christian finds promise which is a key that unlocks every door in the castle.
What is the date of the Anglo-Saxon Invasion?
What is the date of St. Augustine's arrival?
What is the date of Beowulf's Composition?
What is the date of the Norman Invasion?
What is the date of the Publication of Canterbury Tales?
What is the date of the War of the Roses?
What is the date of the Publication of Merchant of Venice?
What is the date of the Death of James?
What is the date of the Beheading of Charles?
What is the date of The Restoration?
What is the date of the Publication of Paradise Lost?