the sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment.
the power to show details clearly in an image.
types of a microscope
compound light microscope, SEM microscope, TEM microscope.
compound light microscope
a microscope that shines light through a specimen and has two lenses to magnify an image.
passes a beam of electrons over the specimen's surface. Metal coating is sprayed over specimen.
transmits a beam of electrons through a very thinly sliced specimen.
the study of life
7 characteristics of life
organization and cells, response to stimuli, homeostasis, metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, change through time.
parts of a microscope
eyepiece, objective lens, stage, light source, fine and coarse knob, stage clips, nosepiece.
the increase of an object's apparent size. (ocular x objective)
an atom or molecule with an electrical charge.
chemical, covalent, ionic, hydrogen.
a scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution. ranges from 0-14.
the smallest unit of life.
anything that occupies space and has mass.
the number of protons in an atom.
atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons.
this protein transports Na+ ions and K+ ions up their concentration gradients.
heterotrophs vs. autotrophs
Animals and other organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances while organisms that use energy from the sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds.
converting light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, primarily carbohydrates.
cluster of pigment molecules and the proteins that the pigment molecules are embedded in.
7 colors of visible light
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet.
reflects all colors
absorbs all colors
all other colors
reflect it's own color and others.
light energy is converted to chemical energy, which is temporarily stored in ATP and the energy carrier molecule NADPH.
CAM vs. C4
open stomata at night, and close them during the day while the other pathway has their stomata partially open during the hottest part of the day.
equation of photosynthesis
6CO2+ 6H2O≥≥≥≥≥≥≥ C6H12O6
factors that affect photosynthesis
light intensity, carbon dioxide levels, temperature
the complex process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds.
two stages of cellular respiration
glycolysis, aerobic respiration
where organic compounds are converted into three carbon molecules of pyruvic acid, producing a small amount of ATP and NADH it is an anaerobic process because it does not require the presence of oxygen.
if oxygen is present in the cell's environment, pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP.
the combination of glycolysis pathways, which regenerate NAD+.
types of fermentation
lactic acid fermentation, alcoholic fermentation.