small circlets of DNA found in bacteria
Frequently, genetic engineers use plasmids, which are _____.
Gene cloning occurs when a bacterium carrying a recombinant plasmid reproduces, thus allowing for the production of multiple copies of the recombinant plasmid.
What is gene cloning?
provide a site for complementary base pairing so that pieces of DNA can be linked together
"Sticky ends" are very useful in genetic engineering because they _____.
a restriction enzyme
An enzyme that "cuts" DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotide bases is called _____.
a restriction enzyme and a ligase
The recombinant molecule below was generated using which two enzymes?
insert a foreign piece of DNA cut with the same restriction enzyme
Shown below is the effect of a restriction enzyme known as EcoRI. Cutting with this enzyme allows scientists to _____.
the generation of short fragments of a single-stranded DNA left at the end of a DNA molecule
What does the term sticky end refer to in genetic engineering?
the fragments will bond to other fragments with complementary single-stranded ends
When a typical restriction enzyme cuts a DNA molecule, the cuts are staggered so that the DNA fragments have single-stranded ends. This is important in recombinant DNA technology because _____.
unpaired bases produced by a trstriction enzyme
The so-called sticky ends of a plasmid or bacterial chromosome are _____.
a plasmid or other agent used to transfer DNA into a living cell
What does the term vector refer to in genetic engineering?
work backword from mRNA to make a version of the gene without introns
Bacteria lack RNA-splicing machinery, which means they are unable to splice out introns from eukaryotic genes. To engineer a bacterium to produce a eukaryotic protein, it is necessary to synthesize a gene without introns. If you know the nucleotide sequence, you can _____.
it helps identify genes that have been inserted into bacterial plasmids
What purpose does a nucleic acid probe serve?
they both undergo complementary base pairing
In which of the following ways are sticky ends and nucleic acid probes alike?
The production of genetically identical animals that are carrying recombinant human genes for pharmaceutical purposes is called _____.
the mRNA was not spliced as it is in eukaryotes
A eukaryotic gene was inserted into the DNA of a bacterium. The bacterium then transcribed this gene into mRNA and translated the mRNA into protein. The protein produced was useless; it contained many more amino acids than the protein made by the eukaryote. Why?
use bacteria as "factories" for protein products
Cloning human genes into the plasmids of bacteria has enabled scientists to _____.
A harmless variant, a natural mutant, was used to stimulate an immune response
How was the smallpox vaccine produced?
A rat with rabbit hemoglobin genes
Which of the following would be considered a transgenic organism?
the inserted ("foreign") gene is expressed in the host organism
Transgenic organisms are only scientifically or commercially useful if _____.
the conditions would be unfavorable to their survival
Genetically modified organisms include microbes that possess enzymes promoting antibiotic resistance. This is a problem that concerns many individuals, with the rise of antibiotic-resistant organisms. However, these organisms do not pose a risk to public health. Why?
it adds a functioning version of the defective gene to the cells of an individual
What does the process of gene therapy involve?
compares the DNA banding patterns of small segments of the genome
DNA profiling is a forensic procedure being utilized to identify individuals. This technique _____.
it can make a large amount of DNAA from a tiny amount
What is the function of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?
use the polymearse chain reaction
Archaeologists unearthed a human skull with a small dried fragment of the scalp still attached. They extracted a tiny amount of DNA from the scalp tissue. To obtain sufficient DNA for an analysis of the ancient human's genes, they could _____.
the baby's...Sam's and Becky's
The patterns of bands on DNA profiles are sometimes called genetic fingerprints. Imagine that DNA profiles are used to determine whether Sam could be the father of Becky's baby. Sam is the father if _____ genetic fingerprint shows bands present in _____ genetic fingerprint.
the presence of various-sized fragments of DNA
DNA profiles used as evidence in a murder trial look similar to supermarket bar codes. The pattern of bars in a DNA profile shows _____.
Comparison of whole genome sequences shows that we share _____ of our genome sequence with our closest relative.
The current estimate for the number of genes in the human genome is about 20,500. Which of the following organisms has almost twice as many genes as humans?
transposable elements can move around in DNA
Barbara McClintock, a 1983 Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine, found a particular nucleotide sequence that repeated itself on different chromosomes in different mouse skin cells. This supported the idea that _____.
We have a lot of "junk" DNA that does not code for anything
If the human genome is so large, relative to the size of other organisms' genomes, why do we have so few genes?
Celera Genomics implemented a faster way of sequencing the human genome. What was this method?
the genetic and physical mapping stages can be skipped
The shotgun cloning technique differs from the original method of sequencing the human genome because _____.
Isolate any food or drink that seems to influence the expression of the gene of interest
A particular digestive disorder is noted in members of a family. How would you approach the study of this disorder from a strictly proteomic angle?