APUSH Timeline cards: Colonial America

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Mercantilism

Economic system
trade, colonies, and gaining wealth> basis of military and political strength
supported self -sufficient countries and the idea that colonies existed to enrich parent country

Columbus lands in North America

1492
Set out to find route to India, failed
Incorrectly assumed in India, Natives suffered with Europeans
Committed to exploration, brought about first permanent interaction between Natives and Europeans

Encomienda System

16th Century
As Spanish Dominance in America ^
Increased gold supply over 500%
King of Spain gave grants of land and Native Americans to individual Spaniards
Natives farmed and worked in teh mines to provide material

Roanoke Colony

1584
England's first attempt to settle America
Sir Walter Raleigh's charter from Queen Elizabeth

Spanish Armada defeated by British

1588
English moved into America> King Phillip of Spain outraged
territory reserved by the pope
King Phillip sent 130 ships to invade British Isles
Countered by English pirates and defeated
Spanish lost monopoly of the New World, English gained reputation as major naval power

Middle Passage

17th Century
Statutory Neglect grew> colonist broke more Navigation Acts
Triangle Trade (Trade between colonists, Africans, and West Indians)
(Africa>West Indies) Middle Passage
b/c terrible conditions and high mortality rate

Jamestown founded

1607
First permanent English colony in america
Given to joint stock company (Virginia Company)
Suffered Indian attacks, famine, and disease
Captain John Smith's leadership saved them
gained financial prosperity from Tobacco

Virginia House of Burgesses

1619
Virginia Company wanted to encourage settlement in Jamestown
guaranteed colonists right to be represented
First representative assembly in America

First African slaves as indentured servants

1619
Increased tobacco production>more labor force
First Africans held same status as white indentured servants
1660s Virginia House of Burgess allowed them to be treated as slaves

Mayflower Compact

1620
Separatists led by William Bradford
Men worried about Pilgrim authority
Bradford drafted agreement that pledged male members to make decisions by majority
first form of colonial self-government

Plymouth Plantation

Separatists driven out b/c wanted complete separation from Church of England
Landed in Massachusetts coast
Received help from Native Americans
Led by William Bradford and Captain Miled Standish

Massachusetts Bay colony (MBC)

1629
Led by John Winthrop
granted royal charter
Based on Puritan morals
Religious intolerance

Pequot Wars

1635-1637
More colonists arrived>Native Americans pushed in land
Prejudice and discrimination>Pequot War
between Pequot tribe and MBC
English won> dispersing survivors

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

1639
Intolerance of Puritans>drove settlers away
Reverend Thomas Hooker formed Hartford Colony
Fundamental Orders... became first written Constitution of the US
established representative government and governor chosen by legislature

New England Confederation

1643-1684
New England colonies constantly faced by threat of attack
England diverted by war>NE colonies formed military alliance
(Plymouth, MBC, Connecticut, New Haven)
Directed by 2 representatives
ended with colonial rivalries and control from the English monarch

Rhode Island

1644
Intolerance of Puritans>banished Roger Williams>founding Providence
recognized Native rights, gave religious freedom
>banished Anne Hutchinson>founding Portsmouth
Colony was liberal in religious freedom

Act of Toleration (Maryland)

1649
George Calvert
achieve great wealth and provide haven for Catholics
Calvert's son adopted Act of Toleration
granted religious freedom to all Christians
Protestant revolt>Catholics lost their vote in Maryland

Navigation Acts

1650-1673
stated that all trade with the colonies could be carried only by English ships and only pass through English ports
provided protection from attacks
resentment developed>routinely defied
(triangle Trade)

Connecticut

1665
Puritan intolerance>settlers to Connecticut River Valley
Reverend Thomas Hooker, Hartford Colony (1636)
John Davenport, formed New Haven (1637)
Two colonies joined (1665)
Royal charter>right to elect governor

King Phillip's (Rebellion) War

1675-1676
^English settlers>Native Americans more upset
Metacom, chief of Wampanoags, King Phillip
KP united tribes in southern NE
Colonial forced prevailed, ended NA resistance

Bacon's Rebellion

1676
Royal governor of Virginia (Sir William Berkeley) favored large planters>Nathaniel Bacon resented control of large planters>led others into rebellion
after death of Bacon, rebel army collapsed
Highlighted sharp class differences+early resistance to royal control

Dominion of New England

1686
James II determined to increase royal control of colonies
Abolished NY assembly, placed all power in colony's royal governor
combined NY, NJ, and NE colonies into Dominion of New England > placed it in control of Edmund Andros
Andros imposed Anglican worship, revoked land titles, limited town meetings
Glorious Revolution of 1688 ended James' rule

Salem Witch Trials

1692-1693
Massachusetts
Religion in politics
Puritan families convicted neighbors of witchcraft for economic gains

Charter of Liberties

1701
Quakers most liberal Christians
William Penn inherited land grants> Pennsylvania
provide religious refuge for Quakers, enact liberal ideas in government, generate income and profits for himself
CoL> guaranteed freedom of worship for all and had unrestricted immigration

Saybrook Platform

1708
^Cultural ideas>religious enthusiasm v
Puritan church- declining membership, less attendance
Churches of Connecticut made Saybrook Platform
enacted system of governance by councils of ministers and elders
lessened church member's enthusiasm and commitment

First Great Awakening

1730s-1740s
Religious fervor of migrants dying down
FGA brought renewal of faith and enthusiasm
emotionalism- common part of Protestant services, ministers lost some aloofness/authority
movement effected all social classes
lowered reliance on minister's authority>lowered political reliance

Georgia

1732
Last of British colonies
Created defensive barrier from Spanish for South Carolina, oversized jail for debtors
began as a proprietary colony> threat of Spanish attack> colony didn't prosper> became royal colony>adopted South Carolina's plantation system

Poor Richard's Almanac

1732-1757
Enlightenment emphasized reason/natural laws
Almanac- combo calendar, astrological guide, source book

Zenger Trial/decision

1735
important news source was newspapers
colonial press- mouth piece of gov.
editors that criticized landed in jail
John Zenger indicted for printing antigovernment articles against William Cosby>acquitted
predecessor to greater freedom of press

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
Jonathan Edwards

1741
Edwards ignited Great Awakening b/c saw increasing devotion to wealth and discontent of faith
in this sermon, argued how God was rightfully angry
Pathos and Ethos

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