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couplet

pair of lines of meter in poetry; usually consists of two lines that rhyme and have the same meter

sestina

structured 39 line poem consisting of six six-line stanzas followed by an envoi of three lines

sonnet

poem commonly has 14 lines; "little song" or "little sound"

villanelle

19-line poem with two rhyme sounds; first and third lines of the first stanza are rhyming refrains that alternate as the third line in each successive stanza and form a couplet at the close;

end rhyme

rhyme that occurs in the last syllables of verses in poetry

stanza

a group of lines in a poem

iamb

a metrical foot in poetry that has an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable, as in the word protect

quatrain

a stanza of four lines

apostrophe

a figure of speech in which one directly addresses an absent or imaginary person, or some abstraction

narrative poetry

poetry that tells a story

epic

a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds

ballad

a type of poem written in quatrains that usually has a refrain that is meant to be sung and is both lyric and narrative in nature

haiku

a major form of Japanese verse, written in 17 syllables divided into 3 lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables, and employing highly evocative allusions and comparisons, often on the subject of nature or one of the seasons.

enjambment

describes a line of poetry in which the sense and grammatical construction continues on to the next line

blank verse

unrhymed verse but with a set meter

epigram

a witty saying expressing a single thought or observation

caesura

a break or pause (usually for sense) in the middle of a verse line

lyric poetry

poetry that expresses that poet's thoughts and feelings

elegy

a sad or mournful poem

ode

a poem usually addressed to a particular person, object or event that has stimulated deep and noble feelings in the poet

internal rhyme

rhyme within a line

end stopped lines

lines in which both the grammatical structure and the sense reach completion at the end

open form (free verse)

poetry without regular patterns of rhyme and rhythm

refrain

a regularly repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song

elision

The omission of an unstressed vowel or syllable to preserve the meter of a line of poetry

verbal irony

occurs when what is said contradicts what is meant or thought

rhythm

repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables

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