a single assertion or a series of assertions presented and defended by the writer
a type of argument that has as its goal an action on the part of the audience
an appeal to the reader's good sense, good will, and desire to "do the right thing"
an appeal to the reader's emotions, such as fear, patriotism, and so forth
an appeal to inductive and deductive reasoning
• forming a generalization from a set of specific examples (Example: Margo has 17 stuffed teddy bears, 3 stuffed cows, 11 monkeys, 4 camels, and 6 stuffed elephants. Margo loves to collect stuffed animals.)
writing or images that seek to persuade through emotional appeal rather than through logical proof—without justification
a proposition that is proven or taken for granted. (Example: All high school seniors at this high school must write a research paper. Sean is a senior at this high school. Therefore, Sean must write a research paper.) Note: A conclusion drawn based on a false premise is also false.
reaching a probable conclusion based on given premises.
mistakes in reasoning that fall into several categories: