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CH. 10-15

variable and gusty

circulation in the immediate vicinity is


terms leader, flash, and stroke are used when describing


steepest pressure gradient

cyclones, hurricanes, tornadoes

thunderstorms can be associated with these weather activities


what is likely during the mature stage of a thunderstorm?

warm; unstable

thunderstorms form when ___, humid air rises in a ___ environment

cumulus, mature, dissipating

three stages of development for t-storms


some of the most dangerous weather is producted why what type of thunderstorm


because of the tremendous pressure gradient associated with a strong tornado, maximum winds approach ___ mph

squall lines

relatively narrow, elongated bands of thunderstorms that develop in the warm sector of a mid-lat. cyclone

spreading downdraft cuts off air inflow

what causes the dissipating stage of a t-storm?

air-mass contrasts are greatest

why do most tornadoes in the U.S. occur during spring months?

leads to greater instability

why is strong heating of the ground by the Sun associated with t-storms?

atmosphere is most unstable at that time

why are thunderstorms most likely to occur in the afternoon and early evening?

more latent heat is available as energy

why is very humid air near the surface a necessary ingredient for severe thunderstorms?

leading edge of t-storm downdraft

where does a gust front occur?

doppler radar

what shows the motion of precipitation particles?


air mass t-storm is most intense during which stage?


a tornado is a small, very intense example of a ___.

200 m

diameter of a typical tornado funnel cloud is

s. mississippi

where in the U.S. are t-storms most common?


tornadoes are most frequent during these months


tornadoes most often move toward what direction?


at what time of day is an air-mass t-storm more likely to develop?

heat lightning

________ occurs more than 20 km from the person observing it


percentage of t-storms that produce tornadoes


the Fujita Intensity Scale applies to


downdrafts and updrafts found side by side relate to which stage of a t-storm?


updraft dominance relates to which stage of a t-storm?


if you see lightning and then hear associated thunder 15 sec later, the lightning flash was about ___ mi away.


hurricanes must have sustained wind speeds of at least __ mph


when occurring in the Atlantic Ocean, they are known as hurricanes; what are they known as when occurring in the western Pacific?


what are hurricanes known as that occur in the Indian Ocean?

tropical depression

when a cyclone's strongest winds do not exceed 37 mph, it's called a _____.

meteorological satellites

what is the single greatest advancement in tools used for observing cyclones?

hurricane watch

an announcement aimed at specific coastal areas that a hurricane poses a possible threat generally within 36 hrs is called a ____.


what category of the scale of hurricane intensity is the strongest?


very center of the storm


hurricanes develop most often in the late summer when ocean waters have reached what temperature?

eye wall

doughnut-shaped wall of intense convective activity surrounding the center of the storm

trade wind inversion

what circumstance may inhibit further development of a hurricane by diminishing air's ability to rise and thus inhibit development of strong t-storms?

trade winds

general circulation wind belt that is the place of origin for hurricanes

prevailing winds are from the east

why do hurricanes in the Atlantic move toward the west during early stages?

600 km

approximate diameter of a mature hurricane

wind speed

____ determines when a tropical depression is given hurricane status.

sinking air motion

why is the eye region of a hurrcane largely free of precipitation and clouds?

very strong pressure gradient force

what causes the winds of a hurricane to be so fast?

300 km/hr

maximum winds likely to exist in a hurricane

friction and lack of warm, moist air

when a hurricane moves onto land, it declines in intensity; what factor(s) contribute to this loss of punch?


which part is a hurricane is warmest?

storm surge

the greatest number of hurricane-related deaths may be attributed to ____.


during what time of year should hurricane formation in the North Atlantic be at a peak?


scale used to establish categories of hurricane intensity

storm surge

as a strong hurricane moves ashore, what causes the most devastating damage in the coastal zone?

5, 20

hurrcanes form between ___° and ___° latitude


to officially be a hurricane, the disturbance must have rotary circulation and have wind speeds of at least ___ km/hr

tropical depression, tropical storm, hurricane

proper order of storm intensity in terms of increasing wind speed

moving over land

what can diminish the intensity of a hurricane?

1 & 2

which scale numbers of hurricanes do only minimal or moderate damage?


which country has historically proven most susceptible to large losses of life from storm surge in the 20th century?

National Weather Service

in the U.S., the governmental agency responsible for gathering and disseminating weather-related information is the ______.


heat waves cause about ___ deaths annually in the U.S.

t-storms and tornadoes

the Storm Prediction Center in Norman, OK maintains a constant vigil for

Washington D.C., Moscow, and Melbourne

3 World Meteorological Centers that compile data and send it to participating countries if the World Meteorological Organization are located near

weather forecasting

process of predicting the future state of the atmosphere is called

analog method

technique used to attempt to match current conditions with similar well-established patterns from the past


determining the occurrence of precipitation, the NWS forecasts are correct more than ___% of the time


these satellites were placed in orbit over the equator and remain fixed over a point on Earth because they keep pace with the earth's rate of rotation


these satellites circle the earth in a N to S direction & obtain images of the entire Earth twice a day by drifting about 15° westward over the earth's surface during each orbit

precipitation producers

infrared images provide a way to determine which type of clouds of more probable

west to east

when upper-air flow produces large amplitude waves and a general ____ flow, mild temperatures and few cyclonic disturbances are experienced south of the jet stream

north to south

when upper-air flow produces large amplitude waves and a general ____ flow, cold air moves southward and cyclonic activity dominates


accuracy of day to day weather forecasts for periods beyond ___ days is relatively unreliable


a weather map shows the status of the atmosphere and includes data on temperature, humidity, airflow, and ____.

cold air moving south

wave pattern in the upper-level winds at mid latitudes provides for


forecasts for regional weather systems (those affecting several states) are prepared by


path that cyclonic storms follow (storm track) is usually farther to the south during

strongly influences development of surface storms

why is the pattern of upper-level winds an important part of the forecasting process?

their orbital motion matches the earth's rotation

why are some satellites describes as being stationary?

5 days

accuracy of weather forecasts begins to decrease rapidly for periods greater than

temperature and precipitation

long range forecasts (monthly or seasonal) include predictions of

was measured at the same time

synoptic charts display weather data that

relative humidity

what is NOT plotted on a weather chart

wind direction

what weather data is not always plotted in the same location with respect to the weather station?

a weather analyst

job of collecting, compiling, and displaying weather data is done by

too many variables to math

major drawback of the analog method of weather forecasting

prediction of future weather data

weather analysis does not include


synoptic charts have isobars plotted at ___ millibar levels


upper-air charts are NOT commonly drawn for ___ millibars


makes extensive use of radar and geostationary satellites


most tragic air pollution episode occurred in London in 1952. more than ___ people died

primary pollutants

category of air pollutants is emitted directly from identifiable sources and pollutes the air immediately upon being emitted


smog is an example of a ____ pollutant


source of primary pollutants - accounts for half of our pollution

particulate matter

general term used for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in air

sulfur dioxide

important sources of ___ include power plants, smelters, petroleum refineries, and pulp and paper mills

volatile organic compounds

encompasses a wide array of solid, liquid and gaseous substances that are composed exclusively of hydrogen and carbon


exposure to this primary pollutant is associated with damage to the nervous systems of young children

carbon monoxide

most abundant primary pollutant

strong sunlight

many reactions that produce secondary pollutants are triggered by ____ and are called photochemical reactions


although ___ forms naturaly in the stratosphere, when produced near the surface, it is considered a pollutant with many negative effects

the Environmental Protection Agency

in the 1970s, the federal Clean Air Act made major strides in reducing air pollution and created

particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, lead and ozone

6 pollutants that are known as criteria pollutants and are covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards

strong and variable (gusty)

spreading or dilution of pollutants into the atmosphere is best when winds are

a near total lack of mixing

inversions represent a hazardous meteorological condition with respect to air pollution because they always bring

spread out horizontally but not mix up or down

smoke released from a stack into a very subtle air mass would tend to

reduce the concentration of pollutants at ground level

primary purpose of a smokestack is to

air is unstable

dilution or mixing of air pollutants into the surrounding air is best when

determine the amount of dilution

meteorological conditions are important in air pollution episodes since they

near the center of an anticyclone

air pollution is likely to be most severe


dispersion of pollutant material into the atmosphere depends on the wind and ___ of the air layer


sulfuric acid is a ___ pollutant


source category responsible for the most pollution


major component of photochemical smog

carbon monoxide

single greatest air pollutant by weight


during what part of the day should ozone levels in an urban environment be highest


what triggers a photochemical reaction

10 times

how much more acidic is a substance with a pH of 5 than a substance with a pH of 6


natural source of pollutants not accentuated by humans


regarding air pollution disasters discussed, ___ suffered the most


current axial tilt of earth

burning of coal and petroleum

most important cause of the increase in atmospheric CO2


what helps explain the present cycle of the seasons

reduce solar energy at Earth's surface

volcanic eruptions can act as agents for climate change because they

plate tectonics

most likely explanation for evidence of glacial activity in places such as Africa and Australia

ice sheets

oxygen isotope measurements are made from analysis of

remains of living organisms

sea floor sediments provide useful climate data because they contain

drought in the western U.S.

extensive tree ring research indicates that 22 yr sunspot cycle may be related to

higher evaporation rates and decreased rainfall in some areas

possible consequences of a CO2 induced climate change


atmosphere's CO2 content is rising - what is a significant contributor


which gas may be contributing to a greenhouse warming

carbon dioxide

combustion of coal and oil is major source of which greenhouse gas

sea-level rise

possible consequence of greenhouse warming

shifts in paths of large-scale cyclonic storms

possible consequence of greenhouse warming

cryosphere, atmosphere, lithospere

climate system consists in part of

ice and snow

cryosphere consists of


large plates that make up the outer portion of earth move about a few ___ per year

can serve as condesation nuclei

sulfur dioxide aerosols

has risen about 10cm over the last 100 yrs

studies have shown that sea-level

11 yrs

sunspot activity tends to follow a cycle of roughly

the Canadian archipelago

ET climates are found in

rainfall patterns

closely linked to the location of major pressure and wind systems

on a windward coast

for a continental area to experience a marine type climate, it must be located

rainfall distribution

mountain ranges play an important role in determining climates because of their influence upon

sun angle

latitude of a place is important for its climate because it determines

whether evaporation exceeds precipitation

primary factor which determines whether a place will have a dry climate is

temperature and precipitation

what pair of elements is most important in climatic description

B climates

four of the five major climatic groups have temperature characteristics as their basis... which does not?

wet tropics

daily temperature ranges usually exceed the annual temperature ranges in

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