events that precede a response
a stimulus that is painful or uncomfortable
learning to make a response in order to postpone or prevent discomfort
a formal agreement stating behaviors to be changed and consequences that apply.
a form of learning in which reflex responses are associated with new stimuli
internal images or other mental representations of an area that underlie an ability to choose alternative paths to the same goal.
conditioned emotional response
an emotional response that has been linked to a previously non emotional stimulus by classical conditioning
a learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
a stimulus that evokes a response because it has been repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus
an apparatus designed to study operant conditioning in animals; a skinner box
a schedule in which every correct response is followed by a reinforcer.
reducing fear or anxiety by repeatedly exposing a person to emotional stimuli while the person is deeply relaxed.
learning based on insight and understanding
stimuli that precede rewarded and non rewarded responses in operant conditioning
fixed interval schedule
a reinforcer is given only when a correct response is made after a set amount of time has passed since the last reinforced response.
fixed ratio schedule
a set number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer
classical conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus is used to reinforce further
learning that occurs without obvious reinforcement and that remains unexpressed until reinforcement is provided
occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or by the removal of an unpleasant event.
a stimulus that does not evoke a response
learning achieved by watching and imitating the actions of another or noting the consequences of those actions.