What is the order of the Ancient Chinese Dynasties?
Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han
What is the order of the Medieval Chinese Dynasties?
Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming
Describe the Fall of the Han
Fell due to peasant rebellion; China split into rival kingdoms (Period of Disunion); Nomands and Chinese mix religion, northern Chinese people fled to southern China; new art, music, food, and clothing styles are resulted.
What was the period after the fall of the Han Dynasty called?
The Period of Disunion
Describe the rise of the Sui Dynasty
Created by a northern ruler named Yang Jian (or Emperor Wendi)
What were the rulers of the Sui Dynasty and what did they do?
Wendi and Yangdi; rebuilt parts of Great Wall of China and built the Grand Canal
Describe the collapse of the Sui Dynasty
Yangdi heavily taxed his people (especially peasants); the peasants rebel, causing Yangdi to flee for his life but is found and killed.
Describe the rise of the Tang Dynasty
The dynasty was started by a former Sui general named Li Yuan (who was leader of the rebellion against Yangdi. The 300 years the dynasty lasted was considered the Golden Age of China.
What are the Tang Dynasty's Achievements?
Their largest city (Chang'an) was a big trade center and was a mix of cultures; Grand Canal was improved and expanded; traded their goods (especially silk) to other places in exchange for other products; had greatest artists and writers (Wu Daozi, Li Bo, Du Fu); made woodblock printing, gunpowder, and compass
Who were the Tang rulers and what did they do?
Taizong was one of the Tang Dynasty's best rulers, unified China, created law codes, reformed millitary, made equal field system. Xuanzong had culture (especially poetry) flourish under his rule. Empress Wu ruled with an iron fist and brought stability and prosperity to China.
Which one is not an achievement of Taizong: Unifying China, Creating Law Codes, Building the Grand Canal, or Reformed Millitary?
Taizong did not build the Grand Canal.
Describe the Fall of the Tang Dynasty
Invasion by the Turks and peasant rebellion.
What is the period after the fall of the Tang called?
The 5 Dynasties and 10 Kingdoms
Describe the rise of the Song Dynasty
Started by a general who was competing for power during the 5 dynasties and 10 kingdoms.
What are the Song Dynasty's Achievements?
New irrigation techniques, more farm
land, fast ripening rice, new crops (such as cotton); Song capital Kaifend had millions of people; sea trade was now in motion due to their Pacific Ports being opened, merchants became important to society, paper money is created; Li Qin Zhao was China's best female poet, porcelein was made; moveable type is created and can be rearranged to form new words; Neo-Confucianism and scholar officials.
What empire did Confucianism finally pick up in?
The Han Dynasty where it became the official state philosophy.
What did Neo-Confucianism teach?
It taught people proper behavior (like Confucianism). It also incorporated concepts about teh meaning of life (like Buddism and Daoism).
How did the Song Dynasty improve their government?
They appointed Scholar Officials.
How could one be appointed as a scholar official?
They had to spend many years of studying Confucius texts to pass an exam (many people cheated on this test).
Describe the Internal Reasons for the Fall of the Song Dynasty
Size of the land, empire became too large to control; Political Corruption had taken place when Scholar Officials abused their right of reduced penalties for law breaking.
Describe the External Reason for the Fall of the Song Dynasty
Invasion by the Mongols
Describe the Rise of the Yuan Dynasty
Nomads in North of China lived in seperate tribes. Timujin (later known as Genghis Khan) unified these tribes and organized them into an army called the Mongols. This army terrorized cities, killing all the inhabitants. In 20 years he ruled a large part of Asia. He conqured Northern China. When he died, his Grandson Kublai Khan completed China conquest and created the Yuan Dynasty.
What did the Chinese do when they started being ruled by the Mongol (who were foreigners to them)?
The Chinese refused to be ruled. Kublai Khan allowed the Chinese to have their own customs and even adopted some of their customs.
How did Kublai Khan's rule affect the Yuan dynasty?
He placed taxes for public work projects, extended the Grand Canal, builit new roads and palaces. Had Mongol soldiers keep watch on trade routes which kept them safe for trade. Marco Polo worked in Kublai Khans court.
Describe the Fall of the Yuan Dynasty
They tried to invade Japan but violent storms and fierce defenders weakened their army. The exspensive work projects they made had weakened their economy. Chinese groups rebelled led by Zhu Yuanzhang (Hongwu) and conquered the Mongols.
Describe the Rise of the Ming Dynasty
Started by Hongwu (who led the rebellion against the Yuan). Lasted about 300 years, strength based on prosperity, building projects, and "fame".
Who was the greatest sailor (Ming Dynasty) and what did he do for China?
Zheng He was the greatest sailor. He bragged about China, which encouraged leaders to send tribute. He also brought back goods and stories.
Describe the building projects of the Ming Dynasty
They built the Forbidden City, which was a city built for the Emperor and the government. They restored the Great Wall.
Describe the Ming Dynasty's government
The government eliminated all foreign influences and relationships. They punished those who threatened their power. Got rid of government officials. Hired Spies. Censorship. Zheng He is forced to return home (ISOLATIONISM)
Describe the Fall of the Ming Dynasty
The Mongols begin making threats, the Ming ask Manchuria for "help" and they agree to help, they attacked China later.