AP Psychology Semester Review - First

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Chapters 1-3, 5-9

The mind is separate from the body and continues after the body dies.

Which of the following best describes the view of the mind held by Plato and Socrates?

the simplest mental processes

Wilhelm Wundt's early experiments were attempts to investigate which area of psychology?

Mental life; observable behavior

In its early years, psychology focused on the study of __________, but from the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of __________.

evolutionary

Which perspective highlights the reproductive advantages of inherited psychological traits?

blood chemistry

The biological perspective in psychology would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by __________ __________.

social psychology

Dr. Mills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. Which specialty area does his research best represent?

industrial-organizational psychology

Dr. Ochoa develops tests to accurately identify the most qualified job applicants in a large manufacturing firm. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Ochoa's work best represent?

developmental

Dr. Winkle conducts basic research on the systematic changes in intelligence associated with aging. It is most likely that Dr. Winkle is a(n) __________ psychologist.

psychodynamic

A clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing a(n) __________ perspective.

biopsychosocial

Which approach is most directly concerned with assessing the relative impact of both nature and nurture on our psychological traits?

mental processes

In the early 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of __________ __________.

elements of sensory experience

The method of introspection was used by Titchener to identify __________ __ __________ __________.

exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events.

The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to...

overconfidence

Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates __________.

curiosity, skepticism, humility

Historians of science describe which three attitudes as the basis of the scientific viewpoint?

critical thinking

A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates __________ __________.

a theory

According to Professor Fayad, we like people who like us because their affection for us boosts our own self-esteem. His idea is an example of _ __________.

testable prediction that gives direction to research,

A hypothesis is a(n)...

can bias their observations and interpretations.

Psychologists' personal values and goals...

informed consent

A researcher who gathers and analyzes data from student essay test responses without talking with the students about the study violates which ethical principle of human experimentation?

statistically insignificant

What do researchers call a difference between the means of experimental and control groups when they know the averages are reliable and the difference between the groups is unlikely due to random chance or extraneous variables?

Larger, representative sample sizes help ensure reliable and valid results.

Why are researchers careful to use large, representative samples in their studies?

mean

In a distribution of test scores, which measure of central tendency would likely be the most affected by a couple of extremely high scores?

neurons

Dendrites are branching extensions of __________.

the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.

An axon is...

myelin sheath

The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n) __________ __________.

threshold

The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the __________.

junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron.

A synapse is a(n)...

interconnected clusters of neurons in the central nervous system.

Neural networks refer to...

pituitary

Which endocrine gland regulates body growth?

was activated by interneurons in her spinal cord.

Sheelah was able to jerk her hand out of the scalding water before sensing any pain because this withdrawal reflex...

neural networks

A football quarterback can simultaneously make calculations of receiver distances, player movements, and gravitational forces. This best illustrates the activity of multiple __________ __________.

reflex

A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a(n) __________.

peripheral

The somatic nervous system is a component of the __________ nervous system.

destruction

A brain lesion refers to __________ of brain tissue.

PET scan

The concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the usefulness of a(n) _____ __________.

lapse into a coma.

Severing a cat's reticular formation from higher brain regions causes the cat to...

thalamus

Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell?

cerebellum

The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the __________.

cerebral cortex

Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your __________ __________.

visual perception

The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of __________ __________.

Broca's area

Which brain area is primarily involved with controlling speech?

Wernicke's area

Which brain area is primarily involved with understanding and producing meaningful speech?

corpus callosum

Split-brain patients have had their __________ surgically cut.

left hemisphere

Someone trying to add a long series of three digit numbers is probably experiencing increased brain waves and bloodflow to which brain structure?

dual processing

Which cognitive neuroscience term reflects the idea that "much of our everyday thinking, feeling, and acting operates outside our conscious awareness"?

behavior geneticists

Assessing the relative effects of nature and nurture on individual differences in personality would be of most direct interest to __________ __________.

genes

The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called __________.

a single egg cell by a single sperm cell.

Identical twins originate from the fertilization of...

less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion.

Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are...

trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations.

Heritability refers to the extent to which...

biopsychosocial perspective

Which psychological perspective most directly addresses questions about the relative influences of nature and nurture?

are attracted to women with peak fertility.

Research suggests that young men prefer older women, mid-twenties men prefer women their own age, and older men prefer younger women. Based on this finding, evolutionary psychologists suggest that men...

Bitter tastes can be an indication of foods toxic toward a developing baby, so this preference developed through natural selection.

How do evolutionary psychologists explain why pregnant women from cultures across the world tend to avoid biter, strongly flavored foods?

genes

Molecular behavior geneticists seek links between __________ and specific disorders.

natural selection

Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of __________ __________.

perception

The process by which we select, organize, and interpret sensory information in order to recognize meaningful objects and events is called __________.

selective attention

You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision. This best illustrates __________ __________.

change blindness

While a man provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The student's failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption illustrates __________ __________.

absolute threshold

During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Antall could hardly detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Antall's __________ __________.

below one's absolute threshold for awareness.

A subliminal message is one that is presented...

8

If the just-noticeable difference for a 10-ounce weight is 1 ounce, the just noticeable difference for an 80-ounce weight would be __________ ounce(s).

bitter, sweet, sour, and salty

Our sense of taste originally was thought to involve only the following four sensations __________, __________, __________, and __________.

sensory interaction

With her eyes closed and her nose plugged, Chandra was unable to taste the difference between an onion and a pear. Her experience best illustrates the importance of __________ __________.

olfactory receptors

Which of the following would play a role in quickly alerting you to a gas leak in your home?

organized whole

A gestalt is best described as a(n) __________ __________.

shape constancy

As a door opens, it casts an increasingly trapezoidal shape on our retinas; however, we still perceive it as rectangular. Which of the following best explains this phenomenon?

our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

Consciousness is...

a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle.

Circadian rhythm refers to...

Stage 1

The hypnagogic sensations of falling or floating are most likely to occur during which sleep stage?

REM sleep

Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with _____ __________.

genetics makes a difference in how much sleep we need and get.

Some people function well with fewer than 6 hours of sleep per night, while others need 9 hours or more. Such differences in individual sleep patterns suggests that...

insomnia

Layla has difficulty going to sleep and staying asleep. Layla is most likely suffering from __________.

dissociation

The divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis states that hypnosis involves __________.

most mammals experience REM rebound.

The best indication that dreaming serves a necessary biological function is provided by the fact that...

has close friends who use drugs.

The best predictor of an adolescent's pattern of drug usage is whether the adolescent...

often accompanied by visions of bright lights.

Near-death experiences are...

LSD

After ingesting a small dose of a psychoactive drug, Laqueta experienced vivid visual hallucinations and felt as if she were separated from her own body. Laqueta most likely experienced the effects of _____.

observational learning

After one chimapanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates __________ __________.

conditioned response

If the sound of an electric can opener causes a child to salivate because it has previously been associated with the presentation of food, the child's salivation to the sound of the can opener is a(n) __________ __________.

learned helplessness

After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg's reaction most clearly illustrates __________ __________.

conditioned stimulus

Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was paired with a loud noise. In this case, the loud noise was the __________ __________.

operant conditioning

In which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences?

B. F. Skinner.

The psychologist most closely associated with the study of operant conditioning was...

chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.

A Skinner box is a(n)...

modeling

Bandura's experiments indicate that __________ is important in the process of learning.

imitation

Mirror neurons most clearly provide us with the capacity for __________.

extrinsic motivation

The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves __________ __________.

reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.

Spontaneous recovery refers to the...

the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information.

Memory is best defined as...

encoding

The process of getting information into memory is called __________.

retrieval

The process of getting information out of memory is called __________.

short-term

After looking up his friend's phone number, Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. In this case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his __________ memory.

automatic processing

Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as __________ __________.

effortful processing

Recording information played during sleep is registered by the ears but is not remembered. This illustrates that the retention of information requires __________ __________.

semantic encoding

Children can better remember an ancient Latin verse if the definition of each unfamiliar Latin word is carefully explained to them. This best illustrates the value of __________ __________.

acoustic encoding

Your ability to immediately recognize the voice over the phone as your mother's illustrates the value of __________ __________.

mnemonic devices

Memory aids that involve the use of vivid imagery and clever ways of organizing material are called __________ __________.

interference

People should avoid back-to-back study times for learning Spanish and French vocabulary in order to minimize __________.

encoding failure

Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to __________ __________.

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