11% of the Earth's land surface is covered by:
18,000 years ago, 30% of the Earth's land masses were covered by:
77% of the Earth's freshwater on land are stored as:
Coarse fragments such as boulders carried within or on top of a glacier and deposited as the glacier melts.
A glacier in mountainous regions that flows down preexisting valleys.
A small ridge that forms between two glacial cirques.
A process that results when high amounts of meltwater accumulate at the base of the glacier thereby is providing a lubricant between the underlying rock and the ice mass.
Basal till or Lodgement till
Dense fine grained sediment deposited like a smear of peanut butter at the base of the glacier.
When a large block of ice breaks off the front of a tidewater glacier.
A bowl - like depression that serves as a source area for some alpine glaciers.
An enormous body of flowing ice that covers a significant part of a large landmass.
Cordilleran Ice Sheet
The ice cap that covered much of the mountains in the northwestern part of North America during the Pleistocene Epoch.
A deep crack in a glacier.
A streamlined landform created when a glacier deforms previously deposited till.
The place on a glacier where snow accumulation and melting are I balance.
A winding ridge formed by a stream that flows beneath a glacier.
The compact, granular substance that is the transition stage between snow and glacial ice.
An erosional process caused by the grinding action of a glacier on rock.
Sediment deposited indirectly or directly by a glacier.
Large boulders that have been plucked and transported a great distance before they are deposited.
Deep furrows in rock produced by glacial abrasion.
Sediment deposited by meltwater streams emanating from a glacier.
An erosional process by which rocks are pulled out of the ground by a glacier.
Scratches in rock produced by glacial abrasion.
Sediment deposited directly by a glacier.
A deep, U - shaped valley carved by an alpine glacier.
A slow - moving mass of dense ice that flows under its own weight.
Any geologic time when a large part of the Earth was covered in ice.
distinct zones of frozen water that occur in permafrost regions.
forms when the retreat of the ice is slow but steady, allowing an irregular pattern of depositions that creates a hummocky landscape of small hills and depressions.
An elevated U - shaped valley (with respect to a glacial trough) formed by a tributary alpine glacier.
a mountain with three or more arêtes on its flanks.
A dome - shaped sheet of ice that covers an area less than 50,000 km² (~19,000 mi²) in size.
A topographically constrained sheet of ice in mountainous area that frequently has glaciers streaming away from it.
A period of warmer climate separating two periods of glaciations during the Pleistocene epoch, lasting from 1.8 million to 10,000 years ago.
The inside of a glacier where the ice behaves like a plastic.
is ground ice that forms when water is injected under pressure
When the tremendous weight of the ice sheets pushes down on the underlying lithosphere and the upper part of the asthenosphere.
A large mound of sediment deposited along the front of a slowly melting or stationary glacier.
A lake that forms when a block of ice falls off the glacial front is buried by glacial drift and then melts forming a depression that fills with water.
A moraine that forms along the edges of a glacier of an alpine glacier trough.
Laurentide Ice Sheet
The continental glacier that covers eastern Canada and parts of the northeastern United States during the Pleistocene Epoch.
the steep slope side of a roche moutonnée
A lateral moraine sandwiched between two glaciers.
The theory that best explains Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles through long-term variations in the Earth's orbital eccentricity, tilt, and axial precession.
A winding ridge - like feature that forms at the front or side of a glacier or between two glaciers.
("lonely stones") tall mountains that rise above the glacial ice field.
A broad landscape of limited relief created by the deposition of glacial outwash.
Oxygen Isotope Stages
Periods of time that have distinct O-18/O-16 rations, which are used to reconstruct prehistoric climate change.
Palsa (Spanish for "elliptical ")
is a rounded or elliptical mound of peat that is similar to a pingo in that it is thrust upward.
a periglacial landscape that has evolved into distinctive shapes usually polygons that form when frost action prudentially brings coarser materials - stones and boulders - to the surface.
The suite of processes involving frost action, permafrost, and ground ice that occurs in arctic environments or along the margins of ice sheets.
Ground that is permanently frozen.
A valley glacier that extends entirely out into the lowland beyond the mountain front.
where intrusive ice bulges up upward to 60 m (200 ft).
where water freezes in soil pore spaces, the most common type.
forms at the front of the ice, but marks a pause in the overall retreat of the ice.
A landform produced by glacial abrasion and plucking that has a shallow slope on one side and a steep slope on the other side.
is ice that is buried but grows when additional water is added.
a period when ice extensively covered the Earth about 2.3 billion years ago when the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere increased dramatically. The oceans froze to a depth of about 0.8 km (0.5 mi)
The gradual slope side of a roche moutonnée.
The sudden rapid movement of a glacier due to basal slip.
A small lake that forms within a glacial cirque.
Terminal moraine or end moraine
forms at the front of the ice and marks the long - term stationary position at the farthest advance of a glacier.
Valley glaciers that terminate at the ocean.
A glacier that flows in a steep - sided valley.
Zone of ablation
The part of a glacier where melting exceeds snow accumulation.
Zone of accumulation
The geographical area where snow accumulates and feeds the growth of a glacier.