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Caroline is receiving treatment for depression. She believes that losing her job means that she is a failure. Her therapist, Dr. Clark, teaches her to challenge this belief by having Caroline list other areas of her life where she has been successful. Which of the following types of therapy best describes Dr. Clark's approach?

b. Beck's cognitive therapy

Since David's diagnosis of bipolar disorder, he has noticed that his family and friends treat him differently. This phenomenon can be best explained by

b. labeling theory

Some theorists believe that there are unwritten laws that govern our behavior, and any behavior that is contrary to these laws is seen as "abnormal." This is called

a. residual rule-breaking

Sonya's biological family has a history of schizophrenia. However, Sonya was adopted at a very young age and had a very healthy upbringing. The diathesis-stress interaction would predict which of the following regarding the probability of Sonya developing schizophrenia?

b. with the continuation of good environmental conditions, she is unlikely to develop schizophrenia.

Samuel is a 6-year-old boy whose teachers' complain that he is has difficulty in the following areas: sustaining attention, sitting still, and resisting urges to do other things in class. Taken together, these are classic symptoms of which disorder?

c. attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

Jamica is a 17-year-old female who is terrified of gaining weight despite the fact that she is 5'6" and weighs only 90 pounds. In an attempt to avoid gaining weight, Jamica only allows herself to eat lettuce and five saltine crackers each day. Which disorder best represents Jamica's symptoms based on the information given?

d. anorexia nervosa

Historically, it was believed that mental illness was the result of a dysregulation in the following four humors

b. phlegm, blood, yellow bile, black bile

Which of the following were NOT techniques employed by demonologists to deal with mental illness?

c. use of psychotropic medications

Monica is conducting a study in which half of the individuals (Group A) are told that they will likely perform poorly on an IQ test, and the other half (Group B) are told that they will likely perform well on the IQ test. In reality, both groups are similar in intelligence; however, Group B does indeed outperform Group A on the IQ test. This is due to the phenomenon known as

a. self-fulfilling prophecy

Dr. Phil takes a behaviorist/learning perspective toward mental illness. Therefore, he would agree with which of the following statements?

c. abnormal behavior varies by culture, depending on cultural rules of normal behavior.

Many cambonian women witnessed the horrible torture of their families during the Khmer Rouge reign of terror some later experienced traumatic blindness (a loss of sight without a physiological basis) this is an example of

A conversion disorder

Which of the following is a sexual dysfunction?

Impotence

Sexual disorders that involve unconventional sex objects or situations are called

Paraphilias

Research suggests that biological vulnerability to schizophrenia may lie in excess amounts of

Dopamine

Electroconvulsive therapy is most often used to alleviate

severe depression

Research indicated that we tend to attribute our own actions to ? factors and the behavior of others to ? factors

situational; personal

John is a pathological liar. He takes things from others, takes advantage of them and never exhibits any remorse after he is done. John has ? personality disorder

Antisocial

The tendency of people to place too much emphasis on personal factors when accounting for other people's actions is called

the fundamental attribution error

Which of the following demonstrates complementarity?

A dominant woman marries a submissive man

People are more likely to tune in to messages that are ? their beliefs rather than ones that are ? their beliefs

supportive of; non-supportive of

It is generally better to ? when trying to change someone's opinion

present both sides of an argument

Which of the following is true about both psychologists and psychiatrists?

Both diagnose and treat psychological problems

Which of the following cues aids in depth perception?
Binocular disparity
Binocular convergence
Relative motion parallax
All of the above

All of the above

Overall, which type of therapy is most effective?

no type of therapy is superior overall

Robert is trying to stop himself from using foul language. He wears a rubber band around his wrist that he snaps every time he says a bad word. Because snapping the rubber band hurts him, he eventually stops using foul language. Robert's plan is most similar to which type of therapy?

Aversion therapy

Which of the following is not a necessary condition for client-centered therapy?
Empathy
Genuineness
Interpretation
Unconditional positive regard

Interpretation

Which of the following is true?

Women hold onto love longer then men

You are in the cafeteria at lunch time (its very crowded) and you notice someone chocking in the middle of the room. Which principal explains why you will probably not help the chocking person because there are so many other people around that can do it?

Diffusion of responsibility

In order to test cause and effect hypothesis, researchers must use

experiments

Ivan used to ring a bell before giving food to his dog. The dog began salivating when it heard the bell. Now ivan rings the bell all the time without feeding his dog. The dog no longer salivates when it hears the bell.
What is the unconditioned stimulous in this example?

The food

What best explains why the dog no longer salivates when it hears the bell?

Extinction

The attainment of object permanance generally marks the end of the ? stage of cognitive development and the beginning of the ? stage

preoperational; sensorimotor

Which temperament is most common in children?
Easy
Difficult
Slow to warm up
They are all commonly equal

They are all commonly equal

According to Freud, the major function of a defense mechanism is to

avoid experiencing too much anxiety

A behavioral psychologist would probably not use which of the following techniques?

Free association

Which of the following is NOT true of systematic desensitization?
It involves relaxation
It involves listing a heirarchy of feared situations
It involves exposure (imaginary or real) to feared situations
It starts at the highest level of the fear heirarchy

It starts at the highest level of the fear heirarchy

The psychological discomfort caused by holding two attitudes or beliefs that contradict eachother is called

cognitive dissonance

Mark and Catherine have been in a relationship for 5 years. They respect eachother, are loyal to eachother and do their best to know eachother completely. What type of love best describes their relationship?

Companionate love

"The whole is greater than the sum of the parts" This statement is consistent with which theory of perception?

Gestaltism

Mike has a cut on his hand that is one inch long and Brad has a cut on his hand that is 3 inches long. Brad has damaged more tissue. Which theory of pain predicts that Brad will feel more pain than Mike?

Gate control theory

Which of the following is not a primary reinforcer?

Money, when you are broke

Which of the following is not a personality test?
Stanford-Binet
Thematic apperception test
MMPI
Rorschach

Stanford-Binet

Women attempt suicide ? often then men
Men complete suicide ? often then women

more; more

cognitive therapists believe that ? causes maladaptive behavior

faulty cognitions

Linda is in the second grade and is very good at math. Her teacher tells her that girls are not supposed to be good at math and that she should spend more time studying english. Next semester Linda does poorly at math. A psychologist might call this a

self-fulfilling prophecy

The type of love that usually lasts for a relatively short period of time, is intense, and leaves you feeling confused is referred to as ? love

Passionate

which of the following persons is most likely to benefit from electro-convulsive shock therapy?

A severely depressed person

A drawback of correlation research is that it

It does not show cause and effect

When we bring in and organize information from the enviornment we are engaged in

Bottom up processing

You have a dream of driving your car through the rocky mountains. Freud would say that the manifest content of your dream is

The Rocky Mountains

Julie trips and falls down the stairs on her way out of psychology class. She gets up and is fine, but is extremely embaressed, her face feels hot and she is shaking. According to the James-Lange theory of emotion

Julie is shaking and her face is hot because she is embarassed

The variable that is selected and manipulated systematically in a controlled study, is called the ? variable

Independent

Which of the following manuals lists and categorizes all of the mental disorders?

DSM-IV

Alcohol is a negative reinforcer if it

reduces the drinker's anxiety and worrys about problems

Researchers have found that divers who memorize material underwater remember it better underwater than above water. This is best described as an instance of

State dependence

A person may become fixated at a developmental stage according to Freud because of

Excessive frustration of needs

Dr. Skinner feeds his pigeon every third time the pigeon pecks the lever. This is an example of a ? schedule of reinforcement

Fixed ratio

Which example is not one of the Kubler-Ross stages?
Denial
Anger
Social withdrawl
Acceptance

Social withdrawl

A researcher finds 4 correlations. Which one is the strongest?
.90
.01
-.89
-.99

-.99

Which of the following typically cause the most stress?

Death of a spouse

The capacity of short-term memory is

About 7 "chunks" of information

Medications that decrease the amount of dopamine are commonly used to treat

Schizophrenia

What is the relationship between attitudes and behavior?

Large positive correlation

In terms of increased likelihood of behavior ? is important in initially establishing a relationship, whereas, ? is more important in maintaining a long term relationship

similarity; complementarity

The following statement would best represent which psychological model? "If i am allowed to control their enviornment, I can make these children grow to be anything i want."

Behaviorist

If you know that a correlation between anxiety and test performance is -1.00 then you can:
Conclude that high anxiety causes poor test performance
Accurately predict test performance from anxiety
Explain why high anxiety cause poor test performance
All of the above

All of the above

Assume that whenever your dog whines at the door you let him in or out. As a result the dogs whining behavior increases. What is being applied to the dog in this situation?

Positive reinforcement

Most students complain if given two final exams on the same day. What important theory of memory (or forgetting) best justifies their complaint?

Interference theory

The general term for strategies or devices intended to help memory is

Mnemonics

Fear of speaking or eating in public are both examples of ? phobias

Social

Gena has slept with the light on ever since she was a child. Her therapist believes this was caused by a learned association Gena made in childhood between a dark room and an unpleasant experience. This is most likely a

Phobia

After being passed up for a promotion and then getting into a heated argument with his son, a man disappears. He shows up 2 weeks later in another town with no memory of who he is, or how he got there he appears to be suffering from a

Dissociative disorder

After going to a physician complaining of memory loss, Jeff is told that while he was under hypnosis, several different personalities emerged. Each personality is unique, with a name and separate memories. Jeff has a ? disorder

Dissociative

Bringing repressed feelings into consciousness is the goal of ? therapy

Psychoanalytic

A client lies on the couch with a therapist sitting out of sight, behind him. The therapist gets to know the clients problems through free association, and positive and negative transference. The therapist encourages the client to work through his problems. This is ? therapy

Psychoanalytic

A therapist offers his patient unconditional positive regard, values the patient, and shows acceptance by reflecting the patient's statements. The therapist is using ? Therapy

client-centered

Dave's mother suggests that he talk to a doctor because of his crippling feelings of inferiority. The doctor suggests that Daves problem stems from internal processes such as self-defeating beliefs, unrealistic expectancies, and negative thinking. This view is typical of the ? model of abnormality

cognitive-behavioral

The opposite of depression is

Mania

An affective disorder than includes both depression and mania is known as ? disorder

bipolar

bipolar disorder is ? common than depression and has a ? biological component than depression

less; stronger

Which of the following is not an anxiety disorder?
a phobia
obsessive-compulsive
conversion disorder
posttraumatic stress disorder

conversion disorder

If patients report blindness, deafness, paralysis, or seizures, but physicians cannot find any evidence of a physical problem or cause, they are likely to suspect ? disorder

conversion

DSM-IV recognizes ? main types of sexual disorders

three

According to the gate-control theory of pain Which of the following would close the gate?

Medication

Mechanisms that permit or block the passage of pain signals to the brain are part of

the gate control theory of pain

the largest percentage of psychologists are involved in which of the following fields?

Clinical and counseling psychology

Closure is referred to the perceptual processing in which people have the tendency to perceive incomplete patterns or figures as complete. This is a perceptual rule of which of the following?

Gestaltism

The argument that perception is an active, integrative phenomenon that is based on inborn tendencies to organize stimuli is emphasized by the school

Gestalt

A group of psychologists at a cocktail party are discussing what kinds of questions are most usefully studied in the field of psychology. Which of the following pairs of psychologists is most likely to find agreement?

Clinical and counseling psychologists

About half of all psychologists specialize in ? psychology

Clinical or counseling

A young boy is attacked by a large dog. He is now terribly afraid of all dogs. His phobia of dogs is best explained by ? theory

learning

Most psychoanalytic theorists believe that anxiety disorders are the result of

Unconscious conflict

Lynn has not slept well since the plane crash she survived three years ago. Lately she has experienced chronic anxiety and insomnia. When she does sleep, the nightmares are so frightening she usually wakes up in a cold sweat with her heart racing. Her symptoms are typical of ? disorder

Posttraumatic stress

Which of the following is a true statement?

Woman are more likely to attempt suicide, but men are more likely to succeed at it

Men are more likely than women to succeed in a suicide attempt because men

use more lethal means, such as firearms

the psychoanalytic model holds that abnormal behavior is the result of

unconscious conflicts

Edith's strange behavior has led her daughter Anne to consider institutionalizing her. Edith's mother and grandmother were both institutionalized in their lifetimes and Anne has already sought psychiatric help. Edith's strange behavior best fits the ? model of abnormality

biological

the most common mood disorder is

depression

Dave's wife suggests that he talk to a doctor because of his inability to cope with criticism. The doctor suggests that Dave's problem represents the expression of an unresolved internal conflict that has it's roots in Dave's childhood. This view is typical of the ? model of abnormality

Psychoanalytic

According to behavior therapy, the therapist should

teach a client more satisfying ways of behaving

Currently the cause of ADHD is thought to be

biological and/or hereditary factors

Julian seeks professional help for his fear of spiders. In stages his therapist shows his pictures, movies, and models of spiders, then a real dead spider, a small live spider in a jar, several live spiders in a jar, and finally a live spider loose in the room. At each stage, he made sure that Julian was fully relaxed. This technique is known as

Systematic desensitization

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