discovered cells, first to observe "small chambers" in cork and call them cells.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
1702, first to observe LIVING cells under a microscope
Theodor Schwann's Cell Theory
"All living things are composed of cells and cell products."
approximate sizes (microns) of plant and animal cells, bacteria, large and small organelles
light (visible light 400-700 nm), transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy
functional groups in biological molecules:
carboxyl, phosphate, amino, hydroxyl, sulfhydral,
molecule that has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region such as a phosopholipid
a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
consist of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom. They are important because these groups on different molecules can link together via disulfide (S-S) bonds
chemical side bonds that are formed when the sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together.
enzymes, structural, regulatory, transport, hormone, receptor, defense,
A bond that links amino acids together in a protein
tertiary protein structure
folding of secondary structure, held by various bonds
secondary protein structure
Alpha helices and beta sheets resulting from hydrogen bonding.
Van der Waals
A weak bond that occurs when atoms or molecules that are close together are attracted.
examples of fibrous and globular proteins
alcohol + carboxylic acid ------> ester group
bond between phosphate and sugar in nucleotides.
short chain of covalently bonded sugar monomers (oligo= greek few)
glucose + glucose
glucose + galactose
an isomer of glucose, a simple sugar found in honey and in many ripe fruits.
A monosaccharide (or simple sugar), found in dairy products.
bond formed between 2 glucose molecules, results from join 2 monosacharrides
Makes up the exoskeleton of arthropods; tough polysaccharide.
Saturated fatty acid with 18 C; no double bonds
16C fatty acid chain, primary product of fatty acid biosynthesis; no double bonds
Octadecenoate; 18 Carbons, 1 double bond (unsaturated)
a family of lipids composed of THREE fatty ACIDS bonded through ester bonds to GLYCEROL, a trihydroxy alcohol.
What are the main classes of Lipids?
fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, glycolipids, steriods, terpenes. (6)
Long strands of DNA wrapped around proteins. ("string with balls")
structure inside the nucleus, where ribosomes are made
region in prokaryote where the DNA is located (NOT enclosed by a membrane)
An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
thick fluid surrounding thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts
disk-shaped structures inside chloroplasts; flattened membrane sacs
The theory suggests that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living., explains that eukaryotic cells may have evolved from prokaryotic cells
Flattened sacs within the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.
site where hydrogen peroxide and other harmful molecules are broken down
Small round cell structure that contains digestive enzymes; only animal cells
Enzyme responsible for breaking down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen
only in plant cells, this part is responsible for maintaining the shape and size of the cell, Acts as a Temporary Storage Centers; some store water, others store waste products.
protein that makes up microtubules
protein that forms hair, nails, and the tough outer layer of skin
Protein dimer; makes thin filaments
the regulatory protein that blocks the myosin binding sites on the actin molecules.
major protein of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone; (strong triple helix conformation)
Channels between adjacent plant cells; connects adjacent cytoplasms.
a short single strand of circular RNA; infects plants; has no surrounding capsid
protein that can cause infection or disease; causes other proteins to fold wrong; "Mad Cow" disease.
Where are the major forms of energy found?
chemical bonds, mechanical work, concentration work, electrical work, heat,
amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius
1st law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created nor destroyed
2nd law of thermodynamics
every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe, whenever energy is converted from one form to another form some energy is lost as heat...
Gibbs free energy