Chapter 6 Terms and Names Enlightenment and Revolution

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World Studies - Mr. Hunt

Aristotle

one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers

Ptolemy

ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe (heliocentric theory)

Nicolaus Copernicus

suggested that the sun, not Earth, was the center of our solar system (heliocentric)

Galileo Galilei

Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars

Francis Bacon

developed the scientific method

René Descartes

"I think therefore I am" , French philosopher and mathematician

Isaac Newton

discovered gravity, laws of motion, calculus

Thomas Hobbes

believed that people are born selfish and need a strong central government

John Locke

believed all people have a right to life, liberty, and property

Montesquieu

the Enlighenment writer who believed in seperation of powers

Jean Jacques Rousseau

Believed that the human beings are naturally good and free

Cesare Beccaria

Italian philosophe who published On Crimes and Punishments

Mary Wollstonecraft

Philosophe who believed in Women's rights

Marie Thérèse Gioffrin

French; Most Famous Paris salon host; Financed Diderot

Voltaire

French writer who was the embodiment of 18th century Enlightenment (1694-1778)

Denis Diderot

Wrote the encyclopedia

Johann Sebastian Bach

German baroque organist and contrapuntist

George Frederick Handel

A German composer who wrote most of his pieces in England.

Franz Haydn

prolific Austrian composer who influenced the classical form of the symphony (1732-1809)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

prolific Austrian composer and child prodigy

Ludwig Beethoven

This pianist was considered the master of Romanticism music

Henry Fielding

English novelist and dramatist (1707-1754)

Daniel Defoe

English writer remembered particularly for his novel about Robinson Crusoe (1660-1731)

Frederick the Great

king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. introduced freedom of religion.

Joseph II

The son of Maria Teresa and a enlightened despot who ruled over the Austrian Empire.

Catherine the Great

Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the Russian empire (1729-1796)

King George III

king of England during the Revolutionary War

Thomas Jefferson

wrote the declaration of independence

Lord Cornwallis

british general who surrendered at Yorktown

geocentric theory

belief that the Earth is the center of the Universe

heliocentric theory

the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.

scientific method

A systematic approach used in scientific study that typically includes observation, a hypothesis, experiments, data analysis, and a conclusion

inquisition

a church court set up to try people accused of heresy

social contract

the idea that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will

natural rights

life, liberty, and property

philosophes

thinkers or philosophers of the Enlightenment

separation of powers

the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government

aristocracy

the most powerful members of a society

salon

elegant sitting room where guests are received

baroque

elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century

Navigation Acts

Laws passed by the British to control colonial trade

French & Indian War (Seven Years' War)

The fourth war between the French and English in which both sides were aided by Indians. The Seven Years War was the continuation and intensification of the French and Indian War.1756-1763

Stamp Act

a tax that the British Parliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American colonies

Boston Tea Party

protest against increased tea prices in which colonists dumped british tea into boston harbor

First and Second Continental Congresses

'''First'''- Set up a boycott on British goods and set up for second continental congress. '''Second'''- adopted the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation.

checks and balances

each branch of the national government can check the actions of the other two branches

federal system

privately owned, publicly controlled, central bank of the united states

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