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The gland that controls the fight or flight reaction is the:
a. Thyroid
b. Adrenal Medulla
c. Hypophysis
d. Parathyroid
e. Pancreas

B

______________ produces hormones that control blood levels of calcium by its removal from bone tissue.
a. Thyroid
b. Adrenal medulla
c. Hypophysis
d. Parathyroid
e. Pancreas

D

The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin.
a. True
b. False

B

Growth Hormone:
a. Is also called somatostatin
b. Is regulated by humoral mechanism
c. Secretion results in a decrease in muscle mass
d. Promotes long bone growth during the formative years

D

When it becomes necessary to enlist the flight-or-fight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is _____________.
a. Estrogen
b. Epinephrine
c. Angiotensin
d. Renin

B

The major targets of GH are __________.
a. The blood vessels
b. The adrenal glands
c. The liver
d. Bones and skeletal muscles

D

The most important regulator of electrolyte (sodium) concentrations in extracellular fluids is _______.
a. Insulin
b. Aldosterone
c. Glucagon
d. Cortisol

B

When the pituitary gland does not produce one or more of its hormones or not enough of them is called:
a. Hypopituitarism
b. Cushing syndrome
c. Addison disease
d. Panhypopituitarism

A

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non ketotic syndrome (HHNS) can be differentiated from diabetic ketoacidosis by which of the following conditions?
a. Hyperglycemia
b. Serum of osmolarity
c. Absence of ketones
d. Hypokalemia

C

Pancreatic alpha islet cells produce ___________, an extremely potent hyperglycemia hormone.
Insulin
a. Erythropoetin
b. Thyroid
c. Amylin
d. Glucagon

D

Which gland or part of a gland secretes epinephrine?
a. Adrenal cortex
b. Adrenal medulla
c. Anterior pituitary
d. Posterior pituitary
e. Hypothalamus

B

Which best describes the respective effects of insulin and glucagon on blood sugar?
a. Insulin raises blood sugar; glucagon lowers it
b. Both raise blood sugar
c. Insulin lowers blood sugar; glucagon raises it
d. Both lower blood sugar
e. None of the above is correct

C

Which of the following terms is used to describe the carpopedal spasm caused by occluding the blood flow of an arm for 3 minutes with a BP cuff?
a. Negative Chevostek's sign
b. Positive Chevostek's sign
c. Negative Trousseau's sign
d. Positive Trousseau's sign

D

Hypersecretion of which of the following hormones would cause pituitary gigantism?
a. FSH
b. GH
c. PTH
d. TSH

B

Which of the following terms is used to describe an unusually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla?
a. Apical aneurysm
b. Endemic goiter
c. Pheochomocytoma
d. Ulcerogenic tumor

C

Target cell receptors for most water-soluble hormones are located in the:
a. Cytosol
b. Cell membrane
c. Endoplasmic reticulum
d. Nucleus

B

ADH and oxytocin are secreted into the blood stream as active hormones by the:
a. Anterior pituitary
b. Posterior pituitary
c. Hypothalamus
d. Pineal gland

B

Tapping on the facial nerve just below t he temple which results in nose, eye, lip, or facial twitching is:
a. Negative Chvostek's sign
b. Positive Chevostek's sign
c. Negative Trousseau's sign
d. Positive Trousseau's sign

B

ADH release from the posterior pituitary is stimulated by:
a. Low blood pressure sensed by baroreceptors in the kidneys
b. High serum osmolarity sensed by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus
c. Low osmolarity sensed by osmoreceptors in the kidneys
d. High concentration of potassium sensed by chemoreceptors in the carotid body

B

ADH is important in:
a. The body's water balance and urine concentration
b. Maintaining electrolyte levels and concentration
c. Follicular maturation
d. Regulation of metabolic processes

A

Target cells for oxytocin are located in the:
a. Renal tubules
b. Thymus
c. Liver
d. Uterus

D

A 50-yo male pt is deficient in ADH production. Which of the following would be an expected sign/ symptom?
a. Increased blood volume
b. Increased urine osmolality
c. Increased urine volume
d. Increased arterial vasoconstriction

C

An essential ingredient for thyroid hormone synthesis is:
a. Zinc
b. Sodium
c. Iodine
d. Calcium

C

Which of the following alterations would slow down the rate of PTH secretion?
a. Increased serum calcium levels
b. Decreased serum calcium levels
c. Decreased levels of TSH
d. Increased levels of TSH

A

Insulin is primarily regulated by:
a. Metabolic rate
b. Serum glucose levels
c. Prostaglandins
d. Enzyme activation

B

ACTH release can be stimulated by:
a. High serum levels of cortisol
b. Hypotension
c. Hypoglycemia
d. Stress

D

Aldosterone secretion is regulated by:
a. The sympathetic nervous system
b. ACTH
c. The renin- Angiotensin system
d. Positive feedback control systems

C

Which of the following hormones is secreted by the adrenal medulla?
a. Cortisol
b. Epinephrine
c. Androgens
d. Estrogens

B

Coarsening of facial features and soft tissue swelling of the hands and feet are early clinical manifestations of which of the following conditions?
a. Acromegaly
b. Cushing syndrome
c. Graves disease
d. Phenochromocytoma

A

A 45 yo male was previously diagnosed with Parkinson disease. He has impaired fine repetitive motor movements. Which of the following areas is most likely damaged?
a. Basal ganglia
b. Prefrontal area
c. Hippocampus
d. Temporal lobe

A

The outermost membrane surrounding the brain is the:
a. Dura mater
b. Arachonoid mater
c. Pia mater
d. Falx cerebri

A

Arousal is mediated by the:
a. Cerebral cortex
b. Medulla oblongata
c. RAS
d. Cingulated gyrus

C

A 20 yo male suffers a severe closed head injury in a motor vehicle accident. He remains in a vegetative state 1 month after the accident. Which of the following structures is most likely damaged?
a. Cerebral cortex
b. Brain stem
c. Spinal cord
d. Cerebellum

A

For legal purposes, brain death is defined as:
a. Cessation of brain function
b. Lack of cortical function
c. A vegetative state
d. Irreversible cessation of all brain function

D

When thought content and arousal level are intact but a pt cannot communicate, the pt has:
a. Cerebral death
b. Locked-in syndrome
c. Dyshpagia
d. Cerebral motor syndrome

B

A 20 yo male was a t the supermarket when he fell to the ground. Bystanders reported that he lost consciuosness and his body tensed up then relaxed, then tensed and relaxes several times. He most likely was experiencing a:
a. Partial seizure
b. Absence sreizure
c. Myoclonic seizure
d. Tonic- clonic seizure

D

A peculiar sensation that immediately precedes a seizure is called a:
a. Prodroma
b. Agnosia
c. Spasm
d. Aura

D

The cognitive disorder that results in the loss of memory of events that occurred before a head injury is:
a. Selective memory deficit
b. Anterograde amnesia
c. Retrograde amnesia
d. Executive memory deficit

C

A 65 yo male recently suffered cerebral vascular accident. He is now unable to recognize and identify objects by touch because of injury to the sensory cortex. This condition is a form of:
a. Hypomimesis
b. Agnosia
c. Dysphagia
d. Agraphia

B

A 51 yo male is admitted to the neuro critical care unit with a severe closed head injury. All four extremities are rigid in extension, his forearm is hyperpronated, and his legs are in plantar extension. This condition is known as:
a. Decorticate posturing
b. Decerebate posturing
c. Caloric posturing
d. Excitation posturing

B

A nerve is stimulated by an electrical current. Upon stimulation, neurotransmittiers are released from the:
a. Synapse
b. Synaptic bouton
c. Synaptic cleft
d. Receptor

B

Which of the following diseases is cause by a deficiency of cortical hormones?
a. Addison's disease
b. Cushing's syndrome
c. Diabetes mellitus
d. Hypothyrodisim

A

A client is brought into the emergency room with a brain stem contusion,. Two days after admission the client has a large amount of urine. Which of the following conditions may be developing?
a. Addison's disease
b. Graves disease
c. Diabetes Insipidus
d. Cushing Syndrome

C

Which of the following describes involuntary rhythmic movements of the eyes?
a. Diplopia
b. Expothalamus
c. Nystagmus
d. Oculogyric crisis

C

A teenage boy sustains a severe closed head injury following an ATV accident. He is in a state of deep sleep that requires vigorous stimulation to elicit eye opening. Which of the following describes his condition?
a. Confusion
b. Coma
c. Obtundation
d. Stupor

C

A disorder that courses excessive movement is:
a. Tachykinesia
b. Akinesia
c. Hyperkinesia
d. Dyskinesia

C

A 54 yo pt w/ pulmonary TB (lung infections) is evaluated for SIADH. Which of the following clinical manifestations would be expected in this pt?
a. Peripheral edema
b. Tachycardia
c. Low BP
d. Concentrated urine

D

A client recalls smelling an unpleasant odor before his seizure. Which of the following terms describes this?
a. Atonic seizure
b. Aura
c. Icterus
d. Postical experience

B

When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight or flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of general adaptation syndrome is:
a. Estrogen
b. Epinephrine
c. Angiotensin
d. Renin

B

The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of calcium. This is accomplished through:
a. Blocking the action of GH
b. Targeting the bone and activation osteoclasts so that calcium will be release
c. Antagonizing the synthesis of calcitonon
d. Allowing the activity of calcitonin

B

Regulating the hormones from the hypothalamus:
a. Enter venous circulation and travel to the heart, which pumps the hormone-containing blood to the pituitary
b. Enter the hepatice (liver) portal system, which feeds the pituitary
c. Travel by the arteries to the pituitary
d. First enter the hypophoseal portal system

B

Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis?
a. Increased calcitonon will cause increased blood calcium levels
b. High calcium levels cause bone reabsorption
c. PTH cases an increase in osteoblast activity
d. PTH is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood

D

Graves disease is:
a. Hyperthyrodisim
b. Associated with autoimmunity
c. Manifested by opothalmopathy
d. All of the above are correct

D

What is the most common cause of acromegaly?
a. Anterior pituitary adenoma
b. Overproduction of ACTH
c. Over production of TSH
d. Pituitary atrophy

A

A benign tumor of the adrenal glands that causes hypersecretion of aldostrone is:
a. Addison disease
b. A phenochromocytoma
c. Cushing syndrome
d. Cushing disease
e. Conn disease

B

The pituitary gland is located in the:
a. Digestive tract
b. Ovaries
c. Heart
d. Brain

D

A state of muscle contraction in which there is excessive muscle tone

tonic clonic

A partial seizure experienced as a peculiar sensation preceding the onset of generalized seizure that may take the form of gustatory, visual or auditory experience or a dealing of dizziness, numbness, or just a "funny feeling"

aura

The time period immediately following the cessation of seizure activity

postical phase

Early clinical manifestations, such as malaise, headache, or a sense of depression, which may occur hours to a few days before the onset of a seizure

prodroma

A state of alternating contraction and relaxation of muscles

clonic phase

The most critical index of nervous system function is:
a. Oculovestibluar reflex (calorie ice water test)
b. Snout reflex
c. Level of consciousness
d. Plamomental reflex
e. Oculocephalic reflex response (doll's eye phenomenon)

C

Confusion is:
a. Orientation to person, time and place
b. Slow vocalization, decrease oculomotor activity
c. Inability to think clearly
d. Vocalization in response to painful stimuli
e. No arousal

C

Coma is:
a. Orientation to person, time and place
b. Slow vocalization, decrease oculomotor activity
c. Inability to think clearly
d. Vocalization
e. No arousal

E

Dystonia is:
a. Abnormal posture maintained by muscular contractions
b. Flexed posture
c. Stooped, hyperflexed posture
d. A spastic gait

A

The breathing pattern the reflects respirations based primarily on CO2 levels in the blood is:
a. Cheyenne stokes
b. Ataxia
c. Central neurogenic
d. Normal

A

For legal purposes, brain death is defined as:
a. Cessation of brain function
b. Lack of cortical function
c. A vegetative state
d. Irreversible cessation of all brain function

D

The ________ ensures collateral blood flow from the blood vessels supplying the brain.
a. Carotid arteries
b. Basal artery
c. Circle of willis
d. Vertebral arteries

C

Loss of past memories:

retrograde amnesia

Inability to form new memories:

anterograde amnesia

Inability to maintain sustained attention, set goals, inability to recognize when objects meet goals, working memory:

executive attention deficit

Denial of dysfunction, loss of recognition of one's own body parts, and extinction:

neglect

The RAS:
a. Programs for fine repetitive motor movements
b. Maintains wakefulness
c. Maintains constant internal environments
d. Affects the positioning of the head to improve hearing

B

50 a 65- yo male with a history of untreated hypertension is now experiencing left heat failure. The most likely reason is:
a. Ventricular dilation and wall thinning
b. Myocardial hypertrophy and ventricular remodeling
c. Inhibition of rennin and aldosterone
d. Alterations in alpha and beta receptor function

B

The layer of simple squamous epithelium that lines the inside of the heart is called
a. Myocardium
b. Pericardium
c. Endocardium
d. Epicardium

C

Which gland sits atop each kidney:
a. Adrenal
b. Thymus
c. Pituitary
d. Pancreas

A

Which of the following statements is true regarding the structural differences between the urethras of males and females?
a. Females have a longer urethra
b. There is no difference; the length of the urethra is the same
c. The male urethra is about 20 cm long, while the female urethra is 3-4 cm long
d. The length of the urethra varies among humans; gender makes no difference

C

Which statement about renal system is correct?
a. Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled
b. Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein
c. Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated urine
d. The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of blood

A

A 60 yo female was diagnosed with mitral stenosis. As a result, she has incomplete emptying of the:
a. Right atrium
b. Right ventricle
c. Left atrium
d. Left ventricle

A

An 80 yo man reports urinary retention. Which of the following is most likely to contribute to this client's problem?
a. Benign prostatic hypertrophy
b. Diabetes
c. Diet
d. Hypertension

A

A client is diagnosed with prostate cancer. Which test is used to monitor progression of the disease?
a. Serum creatine
b. Complete blood count
c. Prostate specific antigen
d. Serum potassium

C

The normal heartbeat is initiated by the:
a. Coronary sinus
b. AV bundle
c. Right ventricle
d. AV node
e. SA node

D

Localized out pouching of a vessel wall or heart chamber is:
a. A thrombus
b. An embolus
c. A thromboembolus
d. An aneurysm
e. A vegetation

D

When a person is in shock, impairment in cellular metabolism is caused by:
a. Release of toxic substances
b. Free radical formation
c. Inadequate tissue perfusion
d. Lack of nervous or endocrine stimulation

C

Which of the following describes a pt in acute renal failure?
1. Elevated serum creatine
2. Leukocytes
3. Low bun
4. Fever
5. Oliguria
a. 1 and 5
b. All of above
c. 1 2 3 and 5
d. 3 4 and 5

A

The major physiologic effect of cardiac tamponade is:
a. Atelectasis
b. Distended pericardium
c. Compressed heart
d. Pericardial effusion

C

Which of the following is true regarding hyponatremia?
a. Inadequate sodium intake is a common cause
b. It can occur with a decrease in total body water
c. It never occurs with burns, vomiting or diarrhea
d. It occurs when serum sodium drops below 135 mEq/L

D

Which of the following statements regarding Aldosterone is true?
a. It is a hormone secreted when sodium levels are depressed
b. It is a hormone secreted when potassium levels are depressed
c. Its action is to decrease the retention of sodium
d. Its action is to decrease the secretion of potassium

A

Which of the following hormones is released from atrial tissue?
a. Epinephrine
b. Norpinephrone
c. Thyroid hormone
d. Atrial Natruretic peptide

D

A client with renal insufficiency is admitted with a diagnosis of pneumonia. He's being treated with IV antibiotics, which can be nephrotoxic. Which of the following lab values shouold be monitored closely?
a. BUN and creatine
b. ABG levels
c. Platelet count
d. Potassium levels

A

Which of the following factors causes the nausea associated with renal failure?
a. Oliguria
b. Gastric ulcers
c. Electrolyte imbalance
d. Accumulation of metabolic wastes

D

The nurse suspects that a client with polyuria is experiencing water diuresis. Which lab value suggests water diereses?
a. High specific gravity
b. High urine osmolarity
c. Low urine osmolarity
d. Elevated urine pH

C

Which of the following conditions is most commonly responsible for myocardial infarction?
a. Aneurysm
b. Heart failure
c. Coronary artery thrombosis
d. Renal failure

C

High-output failure occurs with:
a. Metabolic alkalosis
b. Hypothyroidism
c. Hypovolemia
d. Anemia

D

Oxygenated blood flows through the:
a. Superior vena cava
b. Pulmonary veins
c. Pulmonary arteries
d. Coronary veins
e. None of the above

B

The pericardial space is found b/t the:
a. Myocardium and the parietal pericardium
b. Endocardium and visceral pericardium
c. Visceral and parietal pericardium
d. Visceral and epicardial pericardium

C

Backflow of blood from the arteries into the relaxing ventricles is prevented by the:
a. Venous valves
b. Pericardial fluid
c. Semilunar valves
d. Atrioventricular valves

C

The functional unit of the kidney is the:

nephron

The QRS complex of the EKG represents:
a. Atrial depolarization
b. Ventriculas depolarizatrion
c. Atrial contraction
d. Ventricular repolarization
e. Atrial repolarication

B

Which of the following conditions causes intermittent claudication (cramp like pains in the calves)?
a. Inadequate blood supply
b. Elevated leg position
c. Dependent leg position
d. Inadequate muscle oxygenation

D

Which of the following hormones are synthesized and secreted by the kidneys stimulates bone marrow production of RBC?
a. Creatine
b. Aldosterone
c. Erythropoietin
d. Renin

C

During atrial systole, the:
a. AV valves are open
b. Atria are filling
c. Ventricles are emptying
d. Semilunar valves are open

A

In the normal Cardiac cycle, which of the following occurs?

The 2 atria contract simultaneously, where as the 2 ventricles relax; the 2 ventricles contract simultaneously whereas the 2 atria relax

Which statement is incorrect concerning hypertension?
a. Malignant hypertension is characterized by a diastolic BP of over 140 mm/ Hg
b. More the 90% of cases are the essential or primary type
c. Headache is the most reliable symptom
d. When left untreated, the major risks include CVAs and cardiac hypertrophy

C

Primary hypertension:
a. Is essentially idiopathic
b. Can be caused by renal disease
c. Can be caused by hormone imbalance
d. Results from arterial coarctation
e .B C and D are correct

A

Which should not appear in the glomerular filtrate (in any significant amount) just after the process of glomerular filtration has been accomplished?
a. Protein
b. Urea
c. Glucose
d. Both a and b are correct

A

Water occupies 2 main fluid compartments within the body, the ICF compartment and the ECF compartment. Which of the following statements is true concerning the volume of ICF?
a. All of the water is in the ICF compartment
b. Approx 2/3 of the water is in the ICF compartment
c. The ICF compartment changes, so it is impossible to determine the amount of water at any given time
d. Approx 1/3 of the water is in the ICF compartment

B

A 54- yo female is diagnosed w/ nephritic syndrome. Which of the following is a common symptom of this disease?
a. Hematuria
b. Dysuria
c. Oliguria
d. Proteinuria

D

A 42- yo male is involved in a motor vehicle accident during which he loses a lot of blood. He is in acute renal failure cause by:
a. Kidney stones
b. Immune complex deposition in the glomerulus
c. Inadequate renal blood flow
d. Obstruction of the proximal tubule

C

A 56 yo male presents w. flank pain and polyuria. Tests reveal that he has an enlarged prostate. Which of the following types of renal failure is most likely to occur?
a. Prerenal
b. Intrarenal
c. Extrarenal
d. Postrenal

D

A 60 yo male is diagnosed w/ renal failure. Which of the following lab values would be most consistent w. this diagnosis?
a. Elevated plasma creatine level
b. Decreased plasma potassium level
c. Metabolic alkalosis
d. Increased urea clearance

A

A 45 yo female presents with hypertension, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting, and anemia. She is diagnosed with chronic renal failure. Anemia in this pt is caused by:
a. RBC lost in urine
b. Production of erythropoietin is inedaquate
c. Iron absorption the gut is inadequate
d. RBC are injured as they pass through the glomerulus

B

An individual has an elevated blood level of urea and creatine because of complete calculi blockage of one ureter. This is referred to as:
a. Prerenal disease
b. Intrarenal disease
c. Postrenal disease
d. Preeclampsia
e. Hypercalcemia

C

Of the 60% of the body weight made up of water, about 2/3 is:
a. Extracellular water
b. Intracellular water
c. Intravascular water
d. Interstitial water

B

A pt is complaining of abdominal and back pain. Bacteria are present in the urine. What is the appropriate term for involvement of the upper urinary tract (kidney)?
a. Cystitis
b. Pylenophretis
c. UTI
d. Asymptomatic bacteriuria

B

When the body produces antibodies against it own tissue, it is

an autoimmune response

A positive HIV antibody test signifies the:

Individual is infected with HIV and likely so for life

Immunodeficiencies occur because of impaired function of

B and T cells, Phagocytic cells, complement (All of the above are correct)

The condition in which an extra portion of a chromosome is preset in each cell is called

Partial trisomy

Risk factors for Down's syndrome include

Pregnancy in women over 35

A 13-year-old girl has a karyotype that reveals an absent homologous X chromosome with only a single X chromosome present. Her condition is called

Turner syndrome

XXY person has the genetic disorder called

Klinefelter syndrome

The outward manifestation of a disease, often influenced by both genes and the environment, is called the disease

Phenotype

A child is diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. History reveals that the child's parents are siblings. Cystic fibrosis was most likely the result of:

consanguinity

A 12-year-old male is diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. His kayotype would reveal which of the following?

XXY

When a body produces antibodies against its own tissue, it is

an autoimmune disease

In response to an increased workload, cardiac myocardial cells will

increase in size

A 35-year-old male with a 30 year history of smoking is examined for respiratory disturbance. Examination of his airwary (bronchial) reveals that stratified squamous epithelial cells have replaced the normal columnar ciliated cells. The type of cellular adaptation is called

Metaplasia

The mammary glands enlarge during pregnancy primarily as a consequence of

Hormonal hyperplasia

Progressive cell injury that causes cell death with severe swelling and breakdown of organelles is referred to as:

Necrosis

Secondary or acquired immunodeficiencies:

develop after birth, may be caused by viral infections, may develop following immunosuppressive therapy (E. a, b, and c are correct)

A 52-year-old male suffered from a myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerosis and ischemia. Once oxygen returned to the damaged heart, reperfusion injury occurred s a result of:

Free radical formation

Which of the following is an accurate description of a type I reaction?

Most type I reactions are allergic

Active acquired immunity is gained

After birth

If a person has innate resistance to a disease, the person has _____ immunity

Active

Which of the following is an example of biochemical secretions that trap and kill microorganisms?

Earwax

What is the purpose of the inflammatory response?

To prevent infection of the injured tissue

The mast cell, a major activator of inflammation initiates the inflammatory response through the process of:

Degranulation

A 20-year-old male shoots his hand with a nail gun while replacing roofing shingles. Which of the following cell types would be the first to aid in killing bacteria to prevent infection in his hand?

Neutrophils

The predominant phagocyte of early inflammation is the:

Neutrophil

The end product of the clotting system is:

Fibrin

The phagocyte's role begins when the inflammatory response causes it to stick avidly to capillary walls in a process called

Margination

A twenty year old female is applying for nursing school and is required to be tested for immunity against several illnesses. Testing that looks at which of the following would be the best to determine immunity?

Titer

A twenty year old female has been diagnosed with AIDS. Laboratory resting would reveal diminished levels of:

Helper T cells

Hypersensitivity is best defined as

An excessive or inappropriate response of the immune system to a sensitizing antigen

If the maternal immune system becomes sensitized against antigens expressed by the fetus, what type of immune reaction occurs?

Alloimmune

A six year old boy present with poison ivy on his extremities, face, and buttocks. This disease is an example of

Delayed hypersensitivity

A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He begins itching and develops pain, swelling, and respiratory difficulties. He is suffering from:

Anaphylaxis

The most severe consequece of a Type I hypersensitivity reaction is:

Anaphylaxis

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