Ancient Greek History II

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Aeschylus

writer of tragedies; wrote Oresteia; proposed the idea of having two actors and using props and costumes

Thucydides

Greek historian. Considered the greatest historian of antiquity, he wrote a critical history of the Peloponnesian War that contains the funeral oration of Pericles; He liked to report everything he heard even if there were contrasting views

Pausanias

• Spartan Commander
• Regent of Sparta
• Leader of the Hellenic League
• Left Sparta after a scandal, and then allied himself with Xerxes of Persia to take down all of Greece.
• Basically killed by the Ephors of Sparta due to this.

Delian League

• Attic-Delian League founded by Athens to combat Persia in the future
o Goals:
• Contain Persia
• Gather booty as compensation for damages done to Greece
• Get REVENGE!!
• Composed mostly of islands and cities in Asia Minor
• Treasury was centered on the island of Delos, which is the second best cult of Apollo (good fortune telling). But was then moved to Athens (beginning of Athenian Empire).
• Allies contributed phoros (allied tax).

Cimon

• An Athenian politician and leader of the navy for the Delian League.
o He's the guy who won all the time, and then went to Egypt and lost (awks!)
• Formed Kleruchys
o which were basically extensions of Athens (citizens retained Athenian citizenship). Each inhabitant (or cleruch) was given a parcel of land (kleros). (as opposed to apoikia, which were more independent.

"First" Peloponesian War

• Megara v. Corinth
o Megara defected from the Peloponnesian League to the Delian League. Megara was on the land bridge, and had a very important port. Corinth was upset by this, because it would put Athenian/Megaran shipping in competition with Corinthian interests.
o Spartans refused to do anything
o Helot rebellion on Mt. Ithome, results in the helots surrendering under the condition that they get to leave and live somewhere else
• Athenians settle them in Naupactus, which is at the mouth of the gulf that Corinth is in. This made Corinth even more upset, because it gave Athens even greater control over Corinth's trading routes.
o Corinth and Aegina combined, and they together fought the Athenians, and lost.
• Athenians build long walls, which make them unsiegible, to the port of Piraeus.
o Cimon gets cocky, goes to Egypt, but fails.
o Cimon negotiates a 5-year peace between Athens with Persian and Sparta, because Athens needed to refocus on maintaining its control of the Aegean.

Hellenic League

..., an unprecedented military alliance that the Greek city-states formed in 481 B.C. to defend against a Persian invasion. It had rules and norms, just like modern military alliances.

Thirty Years' Peace

• The treaty that ended the first P war. Only 13 years did it survive
• Key provisions:
o Neither Sparta nor Athens was to interfere with allies of the other.
o Neutrals were allowed to join either side.
o Disagreements were to be settled by arbitration.
o No allies are permitted to switch side
o Each Hegemon was free to use force to settle conflicts within their own alliance.

Pericles

• Guiding spirit of Athenian imperialism.
• Repeatedly elected to the position of Strategos.
• Passed the citizenship law of 451

Citizenship Law of 451

• Law defining a citizen as a child of two Athenian citizens
• Wide and Deep
• Gave Athenian women more status (but no more power).

tragedy

a work in which the protagonist, a person of high degree is engaged in a significant struggle and which ends in ruin or destruction.

Oresteia

• Written by Aeschylus
• Tragedy (that was also a trilogy)
• Supported the shift from personal vendetta to litigation

Sophocles

• Another tragedian
o Wrote Oedipus the King
o Sophist themes
• Questions which is paramount, human law, or natural
law.
• Also fate is unavoidable

Euripides

one of the greatest tragic dramatists of ancient Greece (480-406 BC)

Sophist

• Practitioner of "Wisdom"
o they are grouped together, but don't want to be because what they taught varied but they all teach rhetoric
• Nomadic intellectuals who taught and gave speeches. Most were teachers of rhetoric. Some were philosophers
• Plato made the discrediting of sophists an important part of his wisdom. He said that they replaced actual wisdom with showy speches; someone whose reasoning is subtle and often specious

Nomos

"law" and "custom"; there was state-sanctioned nomoi forbidding burglary; there was also social nomoi regarding what you wear, and religious nomoi regarding how to worship; before written laws, there was a blurry line between legal and conventional nomos

Physis

"nature"; divine laws that were thought to come from the gods

Hippocrates

"Father of Medicine" During the Golden Age in Greece he was a scientist that believed all diseases came from natural causes. He also had high ideals for physicians & an oath names after him was made to ensure ethical righteousness in medicine.

Herodotus

• Was the main historian of the Persian War
• Curious and interested in determining origin and source of events
• Used the work of "historia" to explain his interest

mousike

• A subject taught by sophists that included memorization of poetry and often required the ability to play the lyre

Oecenomicus

• Written example of husband giving his wife vocational training in household management and is written in the form of Socratic dialogue

Xenophon

Greek historian; student of Socrates; anecdotal use of history; used history to fulfill his own philosophical agenda

Anaxagoras

A pre-Socratic Athenian philosopher who maintained that everything is composed of very small particles that were arranged by some eternal intelligence (500-428 BC)

Syracuse

one of the main city-states; located in Sicily; Athens attacked this city state (which was a disaster for the Athens) while they were in a war with Sparta

Aristophanes

• Comic Dramatist who wrote The Clouds
• Summary: Faced with legal action for non-payment of debts, Strepsiades, an elderly Athenian, enrolls his son in The Thinkery (the "Phrontisterion") so that he might learn the rhetorical skills necessary to defeat their creditors in court. The son thereby learns cynical disrespect for social mores and contempt for authority and he subsequently beats his father up during a domestic argument, in return for which Strepsiades sets The Thinkery on fire.
• Analysis: Mocks Sophists by saying that they create evil since they can argue wrong over right should they want to. Aristohpones wanted people who think they know everything to realize they didn't know anything.
• Sophocles = Sophists

Archidamian War

• Named after King Archidamus
• Was the 1st part of the P. War and "ended" with the Peace of Nicias

Athenian plague

a disease that contributed to the turning point in the war; brought Athens to defeat and took the life of Pericles

Mytilene Debate

• Conflict caused when Mitylene revolted against Athens and lost
• Athens' first reaction was to punish the Mytileneans through collective punishment (kill all men and enslave all women and children) but later, some Athenians argued against it because it was too harsh

Cleon

• A popular new politician during the time of Pericles who rose to power after Pericles died from the plague
• In the Mytilene Debate, he argued for collective punishment

Diodotus

• An educated Athenian who argued against Cleon and collective punishment because he thought it was too harsh. Believe the collective punishment was not efficient because it did not deter murder and made it hard for rebels to surrender once they started because they would die anyway.

Nicias

• Spartan strategos who was scorned by Cleon for failing to go into island of Spacteria to rescue Spartans who were trapped there.
• As result of the Cleon's scorn, the strategos challenged him to rescue the 400 Spartans himself; Cleon tried and failed because Spartans on the island surrendered. WHY??

Brasidas

• Spartan strategist who won Amphipolis (MAJOR WIN!) from Athens and shook the Athenian confidence greatly leading to the Peace of Nicias

Peace of Nicias (421)

• This highly problematic agreement brought an "end" to the conflict between Athens and Sparta and was essentially a win for Athens because they succeeded in their goals of not allowing Sparta to destroy the empire and the Peloponnesian League was greatly weakened now that Sparta lost men and prestige
• Was caused by the fact that both city-states worn out by war
• Terms and Conditions:
o Peace was to be observed for 50yrs
o Athens could keep empire it had going into the war
o Treaty contained the expression "the Athenians and their allies" (WHAT?!)
o Sparta must return Amphipolis
o Athens must abandon Pylos and island of Cythera and release all prisoners of war

Invasion of Sicily - Egesta

• After Pericles' death, the Athenian temptation to expand resumed in the Sicilian city of Egesta (an old Athenian ally) which was in conflict with neighbor, Selinus (has the backing of Corinth)
• Alcibiades wanted to involve Athens while Nicias argued strongly against this idea because the risk of resuming P. War was too great
• Athenian's odd compromise was to send Alcibiades west but in the company of Lamachus and Nicias who would keep him in check
• However, shortly before the expedition, the Hermes (stone pillars of luck) in temples and in front of homes were defaced/dephallused and people quickly blamed Alcibiades because it seemed like something he would do
• The Athenian armada ended up leaving before he was tried and Alcibiades ended up not going on the expedition - armada was HUGE and EXPENSIVE (134 triremes and 25K men)
• Attempt failed because Sicilians not much help and Egesta did not have the resources they claimed to have
• Overall, the Athenians were greatly defeated and Thucydides reported: "All was lost. Ships. Men. Everything."

Alcibiades

• Flashy Athenian strategos who did not like rules and was interested in reactivating the war
• Was blamed for the scandal of the Hermes
• Would later be welcomed back to Athens although his loyalty was shifty because he would help Persia, Sparta, and Athens towards the end of the war

Melos

• Small island ordered to ally with Athens but refused and was not backed up the Sparta
• Athenians decided to punish them through collective punishment; though this was commonly used against enemies, Melos was not an enemy of the Athenian empire
• Many viewed this to be too harsh on the part of Athens and this event tarnished their reputation into the next century

Tissaphernes

• an especially lovely satrap of the Southern coast of Persia
• allied with Sparta through series of treaties in which Sparta basically agreed to sell out the freedom of Greek cities for Persian gold
• indicates the new Spartan values and foreshadows dangers in the future

Council of 400

• body of government that replaced the Athenian assembly and gave power to 400 men to take care of Athens
• there was a movement among these leaders to limit power to only landowners
• would later give way to a larger body of 5000

Lysander

• Ambitious chief admiral of the Spartan navy who collaborated with Cyrus (son of King of Persia)
• Was able to capture 22 Athenian ships under command of Alcibiades

Battle of Arginusae

• Battle in which the Athenians self-destructed by not being able to quickly make decisions in war and so even with success in the actual battle, they called back their generals early to settle disputes rather than finishing the war

Aegospotami

• Channel where the final battle between Athens and Sparta took place
• Due to the carelessness of the Athenian side, Sparta was able to win Aegospotami and block Athens' supply of grains
• This crucial battle spelled the end for Athens with 141 ships and all the sailors on that ship lost!

Socrates

• Greek philosopher who liked to question social norms
• Placed in court after 3 men accused him of not believing in gods, making up his own gods and corrupting the youth

Plato

• Student of Socrates who was also a philosopher as well as a mathematician , one of Socrates' students; was considered by many to be the GREATEST philosopher of western civilization. Plato explained his ideas about government in a work entitled "The Republic." In his ideal state, the people were divided into three different groups.

Nomos v. Physis

• A fundamental comparison in sophist movement where physis (natural law) trumps nomos (human-dictated laws)
• Physis is superior because it does not change over time depending on human will like nomos

Thirty Tyrants

• 30 reps of Athens who's job was to help maintain the Spartan oligarchy in the state

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