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Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy. For example, plant chloroplasts convert the energy of sunlight into:

A) the potential energy of chemical bonds.
B) carbon dioxide and water.
C) the energy of motion.
D) kinetic energy.
E) oxygen.

A) the potential energy of chemical bonds.

Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material but do not have their DNA encased within a nuclear envelope?

A) archaea
B) protists
C) animal
D) fungi
E) plant

A) archaea

Once labor begins in childbirth, contractions increase in intensity and frequency until delivery. The increasing labor contractions of childbirth are an example of which type of regulation?

A) negative feedback
B) a bioinformatic system
C) enzymatic catalysis
D) positive feedback
E) feedback inhibition

D) positive feedback

When the body's blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin and, as a result, the blood glucose level declines. When the blood glucose level is low, the pancreas secretes glucagon and, as a result, the blood glucose level rises. Such regulation of the blood glucose level is the result of:

A) catalytic feedback.
B) protein-protein interactions.
C) negative feedback.
D) positive feedback.
E) bioinformatic regulation.

C) negative feedback.

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells generally have which of the following features in common?

A) a cell wall made of cellulose
B) cholesterol in their membranes
C) a membrane-bounded nucleus
D) linear chromosomes made of DNA and protein
E) none of the above

E) none of the above

A water sample from a hot thermal vent had a cell wall but lacked a nucleus. What is its most likely classification?

A) Fungi
B) Archaea
C) Animalia
D) Eukarya
E) Protista

B) Archaea

Charles Darwin proposed a mechanism for descent with modification that stated that organisms of a particular species are adapted to their environment when they possess:

A) inheritable traits that enhance their survival and reproductive success in the local environment.
B) non-inheritable traits that enhance their survival in the local environment.
C) non-inheritable traits that enhance their survival and reproductive success in the local environment.
D) non-inheritable traits that enhance their reproductive success in the local environment.
E) inheritable traits that decrease their survival and reproductive success in the local environment.

A) inheritable traits that enhance their survival and reproductive success in the local environment.

In a hypothetical world, every 50 years people over 6 feet tall are eliminated from the population before they reproduce. Based on your knowledge of natural selection, you would predict that the average height of the human population will:

A) rapidly increase.
B) remain unchanged.
C) rapidly decline.
D) gradually decline.
E) gradually increase.

D) gradually decline.

Why is Darwin considered original in his thinking?

A) He demonstrated that evolution is continuing to occur now.
B) He described the relationship between genes and evolution.
C) He proposed the mechanism that explained how evolution takes place.
D) He observed that organisms produce large numbers of offspring.
E) He provided examples of organisms that had evolved over time.

C) He proposed the mechanism that explained how evolution takes place.

Which of the following is the best description of a control for an experiment?

A) The control group is kept in an unchanging environment.
B) Only the experimental group is tested or measured.
C) The control is left alone by the experimenters.
D) The control group is exposed to only one variable rather than several.
E) The control group is matched with the experimental group except for the one experimental variable.

E) The control group is matched with the experimental group except for the one experimental variable.

Which of the following statements is false?

A) Some trace elements are very abundant on Earth.
B) Other than some trace elements, animals are mostly made up of the same elements as plants, in similar proportions.
C) Iron is an example of an element needed by all organisms.
D) Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are the most abundant elements of living matter.
E) Virtually all organisms require the same elements in the same quantities.

E) Virtually all organisms require the same elements in the same quantities.

Why is each element unique and different from other elements in chemical properties?

A) Each element has a unique number of neutrons in its nucleus.
B) Each element has a unique number of protons in its nucleus.
C) Each element has a unique atomic weight.
D) Each element has a unique atomic mass.
E) Each element has different radioactive properties.

B) Each element has a unique number of protons in its nucleus.

In what way are elements in the same column of the periodic table the same?

A) They have the same number of electrons in their valence shell.
B) They have the same number of protons.
C) They have the same number of neutrons.
D) They have the same number of electrons.
E) They have the same number of electron shells.

A) They have the same number of electrons in their valence shell.

Molybdenum has an atomic number of 42. Several common isotopes exist, with mass numbers of 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, and 100. Therefore, which of the following can be true?

A) The isotopes of molybdenum can have between 50 and 58 protons.
B) Molybdenum atoms can have between 50 and 58 neutrons.
C) The isotopes of molybdenum have different electron configurations.
D) The isotopes of molybdenum have between 50 and 58 protons and have different electron configurations.
E) The isotopes of molybdenum have between 50 and 58 neutrons and have different electron configurations.

B) Molybdenum atoms can have between 50 and 58 neutrons.

Carbon-12 is the most common isotope of carbon, and has an atomic mass of 12 daltons. A mole of carbon in naturally occurring coal, however, weighs slightly more than 12 grams. Why?

A) Some carbon atoms in nature have an extra proton.
B) The atomic mass does not include the mass of electrons.
C) Some carbon atoms in nature have a different valence electron distribution.
D) Some carbon atoms in nature have more neutrons.
E) Some carbon atoms in nature have undergone radioactive decay.

D) Some carbon atoms in nature have more neutrons.

An atom has 6 electrons in its outer shell. How many unpaired electrons does it have?

A) 2
B) 6
C) 0
D) 2 or 4
E) 4

A) 2

The atomic number of neon is 10. Therefore, which of the following is most correct about an atom of neon?

A) It has an atomic mass of 10 daltons.
B) It has 8 electrons in its outer electron shell and it is inert.
C) It is inert.
D) It has 8 electrons in its outer electron shell.
E) It has 8 electrons in its outer electron shell, it is inert, and it has an atomic mass of 10 daltons.

B) It has 8 electrons in its outer electron shell and it is inert.

Fluorine has an atomic number of 9 and a mass number of 19. How many electrons are needed to complete the valence shell of a fluorine atom?

A) 7
B) 1
C) 9
D) 3
E) 0

B) 1

What is the maximum number of electrons in a single 2 p orbital of an atom?

A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

B) 2

Phosphorus-32, a radioactive isotope of phosphorus-31 (atomic number 15), undergoes a form of radioactive decay whereby a neutron turns into a proton and emits radiation in the form of an electron. What is the product of such radioactive decay of phosphorus-32?

A) a positively charged phosphorus-31 ion
B) the conversion of the phosphorus-32 atom into pure energy
C) sulfur-32 (atomic number 16)
D) a negatively charged phosphorus-32 ion
E) phosphorus-31

C) sulfur-32 (atomic number 16)

An atom with atomic number 12 would have what type of chemical behavior in bonding with other elements?

A) It would form ions with a +2 charge.
B) It would form ions with a -1 charge.
C) It would form ions with a +1 charge.
D) It would form ions with a -2 charge.
E) It would form two covalent bonds with other atoms.

A) It would form ions with a +2 charge.

If a salamander relied on hydrogen bonds to cling to surfaces, what type of surface would cause the most problems for this animal?

A) a surface made with carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms covalently bonded together
B) a surface coated with a thin film of water
C) a surface made with carbon and hydrogen atoms covalently bonded together
D) a surface made with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms covalently bonded together
E) a surface made with silicon and oxygen atoms covalently bonded together

C) a surface made with carbon and hydrogen atoms covalently bonded together

Coffee has a pH of about 4.7.
How much acidity (M or mol/l) does coffee contain?

A) 3.5 x 10-4
B) 6.0 x 10-5
C) 1.4 x 10-5
D) 2.0 x 10-5
E) 2.0 x 10-4

D) 2.0 x 10-5

Eggs have a pH of 7.80.
How much more acidic is coffee versus eggs?

A) 1.6 x 10-8
B) 1.3 x 103
C) 1.9 x 104
D) 1.3 x 10-8
E) none of these answers

B) 1.3 x 103

What is the difference between covalent bonds and ionic bonds?

A) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the electrical attraction between atoms.
B) Covalent bonds are formed between atoms to form molecules; ionic bonds are formed between atoms to form compounds.
C) Covalent bonds involve the transfer of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms.
D) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the sharing of single electrons between atoms.
E) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the sharing of protons between atoms.

A) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the electrical attraction between atoms.

In ammonium chloride salt (NH4Cl) the anion is a single chloride ion, Cl-. What is the cation of NH4Cl?

A) N, with a charge of +1
B) NH4, with a charge of +4
C) H3, with a charge of +1
D) NH, with a charge of +1
E) NH4, with a charge of +1

E) NH4, with a charge of +1

The atomic number of chlorine is 17. The atomic number of magnesium is 12. What is the formula for magnesium chloride?

A) MgCl2
B) Mg2Cl
C) MgCl
D) MgCl3
E) Mg2Cl2

A) MgCl2

Many mammals control their body temperature by sweating. Which property of water is most directly responsible for the ability of sweat to lower body temperature?

A) the absorption of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds
B) water's change in density when it condenses
C) the release of heat by the formation of hydrogen bonds
D) water's ability to dissolve molecules in the air
E) water's high surface tension

A) the absorption of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds

A slice of pizza has 500 kcal. If we could burn the pizza and use all the heat to warm a 50-L container of cold water, what would be the approximate increase in the temperature of the water? (Note: A liter of cold water weighs about 1 kg.)

A) 10°C
B) 50°C
C) 1°C
D) 5°C
E) 100°C

A) 10°C

You have two beakers. One contains a solution of HCl at pH = 1.0. The other contains a solution of NaOH at pH = 13. Into a third beaker, you slowly and cautiously pour 20 mL of the HCl solution and 20 mL of the NaOH solution. After complete stirring, the pH of the mixture will be:

A) 12.0
B) 9.0
C) 5.0
D) 2.0
E) 7.0

E) 7.0

Water molecules are able to form hydrogen bonds with:

A) chlorine gas (Cl2).
B) oxygen gas (O2) molecules.
C) oils.
D) compounds that have polar covalent bonds.
E) any compound that is not soluble in water.

D) compounds that have polar covalent bonds.

Why does ice float in liquid water?

A) Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water.
B) The high surface tension of liquid water keeps the ice on top.
C) The ionic bonds between the molecules in ice prevent the ice from sinking.
D) Ice always has air bubbles that keep it afloat.
E) The crystalline lattice of ice causes it to be denser than liquid water.

A) Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water.

The molecular weight of water is 18 daltons. What is the molarity of 1 liter of pure water? (Hint: What is the mass of 1 liter of pure water?)

A) 18 M
B) 55.6 M
C) 0.66 M
D) 37 M
E) 1.0 M

B) 55.6 M

The molecular formula of acetic acid is CH3COOH. How many grams of acetic acid are require to make 1 liter of a 0.25 M (0.25 mol/liter) solution of acetic acid?

A) 0.15
B) 1.5
C) 15
D) 150
E) 1500

C) 15

How many molecules of glucose (C6H12O6 molecular mass = 180 daltons) would be present in 90 grams of glucose?

A) (6.02/90) × 1023
B) 90 × 1023
C) (6.02/180) × 1023
D) (90/180) × 6.02 × 1023
E) (90 x 6.02) × 1023

D) (90/180) × 6.02 × 1023

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