AST 135 Three

Created by dramaqueen1238 

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Under what circumstances can differentiation occur in a planet?

The planet must have a molten interior.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the inner planets?

They all have substantial atmospheres

Patterns of stars in constellations hardly ever change in appearance over times of even a few thousand years. Why?

The stars in our sky actually move rapidly relative to us... thousands of km per hour... but are so far away that it takes a long time for this motion to make a noticeable change in the patterns in the sky

What is the ecliptic plane?

the plane of earth's orbit around the sun

Which of the following statements about the celestial sphere is not true?

the "celestial sphere" is just another name for our universe

Which of the following statements about the celestial sphere is true at all latitudes?

it represents an extension of the earth's equator onto the celestial sphere

What is the ecliptic

the sun's apparent path along the celestial sphere

what is a circumpolar star?

a star that always remains above your horizon

Which of the following statements about circumpolar stars is true at all latitudes?

they always remain above your horizon.

we describe a position on earth's surface by stating its...

latitude and longitude

we describe a position on the celestial sphere's surface by stating its...

altitude and azimuth

by locating the ncp in the sky, how can you determine your latitude?

the altitude of the ncp is the same as your latitude

the point directly over your head is called

the zenith

which of the following correctly describes the meridian in your sky?

a half-circle extending from your horizon due north, thru your zenith, to your horizon due south

which of the following best describes what we mean by the universe?

the sum total of all matter and energy

star:

large, glowing ball of gas that generates heat and light thru nuclear fusion

moon

an object that orbits a planet

comet

a relatively small and icy object that orbits a star

galaxy

a great island or star in space, all held together by gravity and orbiting a common center

ptolomey was important in the history of astronomy because he

developed a model of the solar system that made sufficiently accurate predictions of planetary positions to remain in use for many centuries.

how did the ptolemaic model explain the apparent retrograde motion of the planets

it held that the planets moved along small circles that moved on larger circles around earth

why did ptolemny have the planets orbiting earth "circles upon circles" in his model of the universe?

to explain the fact that planets sometimes appear to move westward, rather than eastward, relative to the stars in our sky

where was the sun in ptolemy's model of the universe?

between the orbits of venus and mars

he discovered that the orbits of planets are ellipses

kepler

he discovered that jupiter has moons:

galileo

when copernicus first created his sun-centered model of the universe, it did not lead to substantially better predictions of planetary positions than the ptolemaic model. Why not?

copernicus used perfect circles for the orbits of the planets

which of the following was not observed by galileo?

stellar parallax

one of the nails in the coffin for earth-centered universe was

galileo's observations of the moons of jupiter

which of the following is not one of, nor follows directly from, kepler's laws?

the force of attraction between any two objects decreases with the square of the distance between their centers

kepler's third law, p2=a3, means that

planets that are farther from the sun move at slower average speeds than nearer planets

kepler's second law, which states that as a planet moves around its orbit it sweeps out equal areas in equal times, means that

a planet travels faster when it is nearer to the sun and slower when it is farther from the sun.

which of the following is an example in which you are traveling at constant speed but not a constant velocity

driving around in a circle at exactly 100 km/hr

if your mass is 60 kg on earth, then what would your mass be on the moon?

60 kg

newton's second law of motion tells us that the net force applied to an object equals its

mass times acceleration

the movement of a pool ball after being struck by a cue is an example of

newton's second law of motion

absolute zero is

0 degrees kelvin

according to the universal law of gravitation, the force due to gravity is

inversely proportional to the square of the distance between objects

according to the universal law of gravitation, if you double the masses of both attracting objects, then the gravitational force between them will

increase by a factor of 4

the center of mass of a binary star system is

the point at which the two objects would balance if they were somehow connected

the frequency of a wave is

all of the above

the wavelength of a wave is

the distance between two adjacent peaks of the wave

how are the wavelength, frequency, and energy related for photons of light?

longer wavelength means lower frequency and lower energy

from shortest to longest wavelength, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation

gamma rays, x rays, uv light, visible light, infrared, radio

which of the following statements about x rays and radio waves is not true?

x rays travel thru space faster than radio waves

we can see each other in the classroom right now because we

reflect visible light

without telescopes or other aid, we can look up and see the moon in the night sky because it

reflects visible light

visible light from a distant star can be spread into a spectrum by using a glass prism or

a diffraction grating

what do astronomers mean by light pollution?

light pollution refers to light used for human activities that brightens the sky and hinders astronomical observations.

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