greatest of Greek kings from Mycenae
Helen of Sparta
King Menelaus' wife
way the Odyssey is told
the ways stories are told. The poem itself comments on how itself and stories in general are told...relates to the importance of story-telling.
how long something takes in the story as opposed to the telling of the story...poem is slowing down in Ithaca and speeding up with Calypso
skipping over years without saying anything about
if everything happens at the same place (i.e. dialogue)
Odysseus and the poem's similarities
clever, wild, and tricky, and twisty and turny...as is the text itself... "the cunning man...the wanderer"
Paramount theme in the Odyssey, even though there are times when Odysseus doubts that.
Represent Pleasures and Pains of Journey
Excessively friendly characters and excessively dangerous character
Rhythm of poem
Repetition of adjectives
useful for meter and/or to reinforce a point
"and then I did this...and then I did this..." present in the repetitive nature of first few lines...distraction and more random
the theory that deliberate, purposive activity; rather than mere chance, is involved in some process. "there's an end, there's a goal, and I'm going to get there"...driven
Motif of Homecoming
Ability to return is the ability to stay focused (Calypso)
Motif of Growing up
Telemachus learns how to stand up to others and learns how to lie
Importance of Athena
Athena is guiding via her wisdom. She helps the story stay on track
Motif of Crime and Punishment
Constantly mentioned that suitors will be punished
Welcome by young person, Offer of water for hand washing, food, wine, ask questions, offer of a place to stay, offer of a parting gift
Motif of storytelling
Odysseus is like a bard in a lot of ways. He tells his story to the Phaeacians. Demodocus is a present bard in this part of the story...makes Odysseus shed a tear.
means the return. Refers to the return of the Greek heroes following the war; evokes different feeling from different characters in the Odyssey including Telemachus and Penelope
intent of Gods disguised in signs. Halitherses interprets it with proper meaning, but Eurymachus says that it's just an eagle.
Explanation and use of Narrative
Explanation, Information, Deception (produce false beliefs), Persuasion (an argument or used to dissuade) i.e. story of Orestes...might cause Telemachus to do the same thing, Induce Pleasure, Induce Pain (associated with Reminding), Induce Forgetting, Induces encouragement/warning, Show justification
Odysseus and Penelope similarities
uniquely wily and resourceful, neither able to forget other
Importance of Odysseus and Penelope similarities
If either loses sight of homecoming, the story is doomed.
Similarities in Stories: Episodic
Stalling time: Odysseus with Calypso and Penelope with weaving
Similarities in Stories: Teleological
With each story Odysseus gets closer to end. Suitors try to push for an ending by having Penelope acknowledge he's dead.
Issues of Civilization and Law
Do certain civilizations know how to welcome strangers and be good hosts?
Order/Hierarchy of Civilization - Horizontal Axis
Cities - Ithaca, Plyos (Nestor), Sparta
Order/Hierarchy of Civilization - Vertical Axis
Characters - Immortals including Gods, Calypso and Circe, Aeolus, Phaeacians, Cicones. Characters - Mortals including lotus eaters, underworld shades, Laestrygonians, Sirens, Scylla, Charybdis
Harnessing Nature - What is Civilized?
Cooking, tool-making, weapons, agriculture, sail to harness winds,
Incestuous marriage and adultery bad, but Odysseus exempt because he has sex with immortals
Must be done for sake of Gods. Instance where Odysseus' crewmen do this with ox (thrinakia) just means they were ignorant and punished for that.
Other forms of Civilization
Political institutions such as assembly, arts and entertainment
Who else is Penelope similar to?
Importance of weaving
In greek, mast is very similar to the word for weave...Odysseus is plowing the sea...Athena may weave a plant for Odysseus.
way of getting subject across to you
Odysseus' name for himself...like a new Trojan Horse scene
Eumaeus; has also been Telemachus' father for 20 years
Motif of Lying
Odysseus does this frequently to attain his goals. Athena recognizes it in him. Eumaeus even recognizes that he's lying, but still cannot see the truth.
Issue of Authenticity
Most important part of the world can be the most alien...Odysseus trying to figure out who is loyal to him and who is not.
Importance of being a beggar
Odysseus has no place because Beggar's have no association whereas slaves do. There's a problem with having some authenticity...remember letting Polyphemus know his name?
Because he is a beggar, Odysseus can see through everybody...ironically, this is more like the Gods!
Irony of being a beggar
Odysseus' means of restoring himself is denial of identity of Odysseus
Justification of Odysseus in general
Narrator works hard to shift the blame from Odysseus to the men in the first few lines
Justifications to Slaughter Scenes
1. People had plenty of warning
2. Bad hosts and bad guets
Odysseus is not recognized until Eurycleia sees his scar. Penelope is still unsure and has to wait for a sign (olive-tree bed connection that cannot be moved)
Three generations fighting side by side...poem is unclear about passing of time only in this scene.