Tyler Stephenson

40 terms by tyleras1

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science mid- term exam

organism

any living thing

cell

the smallest unit of an organism that carries on the functions of life

homeostasis

the regularion of an organisms internal, life maintaining condition despite changes in its enviroment

binomial nomenclature

the two word naming system used to name various organisms

genus

a group of similar species

kingdom

the largest group of the classification system

phylogeny

the evolutionary history of an organism

dichotomus key

detailed list of scientific names and identifying characteristics

Carolus Linnaeus

invented two word naming systemused widely by scientists

cell theory

the theory that every cell came from a cell that
already exsisted

cell wall

tough, rigid outer covering that protects cells and give them shape

cell membrane

the outer most covering of a cell

cytoplasm

a gelatin like substance in a cell

ribosomes

small stuctures that cells make proteins on

organelles

stuctures in the cytoplasm of a cell that produces energy and other things

nucleus

a part of a cell which all activities are directed by

chloroplasts

green organelles in the cytoplasm that food is made of

mitochondria

releases the energy in food

endoplasmic reticulum

a complex series of membranes in the cytoplasm of a cell

Golgi bodies

stacked, flattened membranes that package and transport materials

tissue

a group of similar cells that work together

organ

a stucture of two different types of tissues that work together

organ system

a group of organs working together to perform a certain function

host cell

living cell in which a virus can actively multiply or in which a virus can hide until activated by enviromental stimuli

virus

a strand of hereditary material surronded by a protein coating

Mitosis

the process in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei

chromosome

a structure in the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei

asexual reproduction

a new organism is produced from one organism

plasma

liquid part of blood

hemoglobin

a molecule that carries oxygen and carbondioxide and keeps blood red

platelets

irregularly shaped cell fragments that helps clot blood

artery

blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart

capilaries

blood vessels that connect arteies and veins

veins

blood vessels that bring blood back to the heart

lymph

fluid that has diffused into the lymphatic capillaries

pasteurization

the process of heating a liquid to a temperature that kills most bacteria

infeectious disease

a disease that is spread from an infected organism or the enviroment to another organism

noninfectious disease

not spread from one person to another

allergens

substances that cause an allergic response

immune system

a system in our bodies that fights pathogens and diseases

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