America First Committee (1940)
Largely mid-western isolationist organization supported by many prominent Citizens
Lend-Lease Act (1941)
Permitted the US to lend or lease Arms and other supplies to the allies, signifying increasing liklihood of American involvement in WWII
3 week battle against the Japanese and US to secure the territory from the Japanese; Nearly all of Japanese defenders were killed
"Battle of the Bulge"; 1944-1945; Major German offensive; one of the bloodiest battles fought
34th President; "Crusade against communism, Korea, and corruption"; 5 star General in WWII
Sect. General of the World Jewish Congress; Sent the telegram of the planned Holocaust
1st official communication about the planned Holocaust
Controlled Materials Plan
Developed by Ferdinand Eberstadt; it allowed the armed forces to prioritize their needs that in turn allowed the private sector to prioritize its production to meet military needs.
African-American Civil Rights leader; Head of the "March on Washington"; organized the "Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters"
Secret American program during WWII to develop an Atomic Bomb
the meeting of FDR, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin to discuss the Post-War world. (1945)
Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere
a 1940 concept created by the Japanese Gov't to create a self-suffiecient "Block of Asia Nations" lead by the Japanese and free of western powers
National Organization for Women (NOW)
a 1966 Organization founded by Betty Friedan that pushed for abortion rights, nondiscrimination in the workplace, and other forms of equality.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Led a team of physicists during the Manhattan Project.
July-August 1945; last meeting of the major Allied powers Truman, Stalin, and Attlee (brit) that finalized the plans presented in Yalta
a 1945 organization of nations to maintain world Peace
General during WWII who proposed the 1947 program of European Reconstruction.
the 1947 United States program for the Reconstruction of post-WWII Europe through massive aid to former enemy nations as well as allies.
the 1947 doctrine created by the US president that aided European countries threatened by communism. Esp. Greece and Turkey.
Low-cost, Mass-produced developments of suburban tract housing after WWII
House Un-American Activities Committee
a 1938 committee that investigated subversives in the government and holders of radical ideas
former state department official accused of espionage and communist party membership in 1948
Brown V. Topeka Board of Education
the 1954 Supreme court case that struck down on racial segregation in Public Education. Declared "separate but Equal" was unconstitutional.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
the committee formed in 1960 that coordinated civil right's Sit-Ins and other forms of protests
Civil Rights Act
the 1964 Act that outlawed discrimination in public accommodations and employment
Voting Rights Act
the 1965 Act that authorized federal protection of the right to vote and permitted federal enforcement of minority voting rights in individual counties
the 1968 surprise attack by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese during the Vietnamese New Year. This attack turned American public opinion strongly against the war.
"The Pentagon Papers"
the 1971 informal name for the Defense Departments secret history of the Vietnam conflict.
War Powers Act
the 1973 act reflecting growing opposition to American involvement in Vietnam. It required congressional approval before the President sent troops abroad.
Roe V. Wade
the 1973 Supreme Court decision requiring states to permit first trimester abortions.
Executive Order 8802
Order issued by Roosevelt in order to persuade Phillip Randolph to call off the March on Washington. The order banned discrimination in defense jobs and established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to monitor compliance.
Executive Order 9066
Order issued in 1942 that ordered the expulsion of all persons of Japanese descent from the West Coast.
Korematsu V. United States
the 1944 Supreme Court trial that denied the appeal of the Japanese-American Descendent. He was arrested for refusing to present himself for internment.
Aug. 6, 1945 bombing
Aug. 9, 1945 bombing
Emperor of Japan during WWII
the trials WWII allies put Nazi officials before for the crimes against humanity.
Founded NOW in 1966 and the "Feminine Mystique"
GI Bill of Rights
1944 Act that extended an array of benefits, including unemployment pay, scholarships for higher-education, low-cost mortgage loans, pensions and job training for veterans.
(1950) helped to spur a dramatic increase in American military spending. enabled the US to persue a Global Crusade against communism.
1st black baseball player to play in the white league.
Little Rock Nine
The name of the highschoolers who were escorted in Central High School by the 101st Airbourne Division in 1957.
the riots in 1965 that took place in California after Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act. $30 million worth of property damage.
Black Panther Party
the party founded in 1966 that advocated self-defense in repsonse to police brutality. Wore military Garb and demanded the release of black prisoners because of racism in the criminal justice system.
The 1945 largest assault in the Pacific during WWII.
The "Four Policemen"
the term coined by FDR that referred to the 4 major Allies of WWII and founders of the UN: US, Great Britain, USSR, and China.
"Father of Containment"; Played key roles in the developments of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Law
The "Kitchen Debate"
the 1959 high-level meeting between Soviets and US leaders.
Hungarian-American theoretical physicist and early member of the Manhattan Project. Known as the "father of the Hydrogen bomb".
Sen. from Wisconsin. Fueled fears of widespread communist subversion.
referred to any type of Anti-Communist activities
first woman to run a major television studio named "Desilu".
American poet and leading figures of the "Beat Generation"; Homosexual and political activist
Cultural icon in the 20th; worked to bring African-American music to a wider audience; Worked with Sam Phillips
Owner of Sun Records; worked with Elvis, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Johnny Cash
Executive Order 9981
the 1948 Order issued by Truman that expanded on the Executive order 8802. Established equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed services for people of all races, religions, and National origins.
African-American Lawyer who was best known for his victory in Brown V. Board of Education. 1st black S.C. Justice
"First lady of Civil Rights"; refused to give up her seat to a white male on the bus and was arrested.
Montgomery Improvement Association
the 1955 association formed by black ministers and community leaders that focused on National Attention on Racial Discrimination. Guided the bus-boycott and was led by MLK Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Minister and prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement; believed in non-violent protests and integration
African-American Muslim minister and civil rights activist; believed in separatism and viewed violence necessary in getting what they want.
Nation of Islam (NOI)
African-American religious/politcal movement headed by Elijah Muhammad. Taught of black pride and prinicples of Islam
the 1961 civil rights protest that took black protestors on interstate buses through the south to test the Supreme Court decision of Boynton V. Virginia. Rode from DC to NOLA
Eugene "Bull" Connor
Commissioner of Public Safety in Birmingham during the Civil Rights Movement; Known for giving the "OK" to officials who fire-hosed and set Police attack dogs on peaceful demonstrators.
Governor of Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement; Pro-Segregation
the theory that if one state or region came under the influence of communism, the surrounding countries would follow.
Ngo Dinh Diem
1st president of South Vietnam; Created the Republic of Vietnam; Politically Corrupt
Army of The Republic of Vietnam (ARVN)
the 1955-1975 South Vietnam Army
National Liberation Front
"Vietcong"; Political organization and Army in South Vietnam and Cambodia that fought the US and South Vietnam Government
Secretary of Defense during the Vietnam War. (Kennedy and Johnson's Terms)
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
the 1964 response to a sea battle between North Vietnam's Navy Torpedo Squadron and the U.S.S. Maddox. It gave President Johnson the authorization to do whatever necessary in order to assist any member or protocol of the Southeast Asia collective Defense Treaty
Army General during the Vietnam War and Tet Offensive. Adapted the strategy of attrition against the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam
Vo Nyugen Giap
Vietnamese officer during the Tet offensive; Always been the assumed planner of the surprise attack
American Guitarist; 101st Airbourne division; one of the most influential musicians during this time
American Psychologist at Harvard known for advocating LSD. "Turn on, Tune in, and Drop out"
American Indian Movement
the 1968 Native American Activist organization that focused on spirituality, leadership and sovereignty. Combated poverty, housing, treaty issues, and police harassment.
3 day long concert in Bethel, NY. 2 Fatalities ( 1 O.D. and 1 accidental)
Free concert in Norther California that competed with Woodstock; one homicide and 3 accidental deaths.
Kent State University
the May 4th, 1970 the student protest to the Cambodian Invasion that ended with a shooting of unarmed students by the National Guard. 4 died.
Hard Hat Riots
the May 8th, 1970 riots in New York. 200 construction workers protested the Kent State shootings. 2 hours long and 6 were arrested.