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Which of the following terms represents the frequency of heterozygotes in a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

2pq

Which of the following statements about evolution is true?

Evolution can result in adaptations.

An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial population. You would expect the next generation of bacteria

to be more resistant to that antibiotic.

The role of a control in an experiment is to

provide a basis of comparison to the experimental group.

Humans share several features with salamanders. Certain genes and proteins are nearly identical
between the two species; both species have four limbs with a similar skeletal structure; the
species' early embryos are very similar; and where the salamander has a functional tail, humans
have a vestigial tailbone. In evolutionary terms, these are examples of

homology.

Large antlers in male elk, which are used for battles between males, are a good example of a trait
favored by

sexual selection.

Which of the following is a kingdom within the domain Eukarya?

Fungi

Microevolution, or evolution at its smallest scale, occurs when

a population's allele frequencies change over a span of generations.

A systematist includes a lizard in a phylogenetic analysis of relationships among bird families.
In this analysis, the lizard would be treated as

the outgroup.

The three-domain system

subdivides the prokaryotes into two different domains.

Which of the following options lists taxonomic categories in the correct order from most specific
to most general?

genus, family, order, class, phylum

Diane Dodd raised different fruit fly populations on different food sources. She found that after
about 40 generations, the evolution of reproductive isolation was under way. The mechanism of
evolution responsible for this was

natural selection.

You compare homologous nucleotide sequences between several pairs of species with known
divergence times. A pair of species that diverged 1 million years ago has two nucleotide
differences, a pair that diverged 2 million years ago has four nucleotide differences, and a pair
that diverged 3 million years ago has six nucleotide differences. You have sequence data for
another pair of species where the divergence time is unknown. There are five nucleotide
differences between them. Based on your clock, when did their line of ancestry diverge?

2.5 million years ago

Miller-Urey-type experiments have shown that

complex organic molecules can be produced by physical processes from inorganic
components.

Cave-dwelling catfish and cave-dwelling salamanders share striking similarities: both
organisms lack pigmentation and their eyes are reduced or absent. The most recent common
ancestor to these organisms had normal pigmentation and fully developed eyes. The similarities
between cave catfish and cave salamanders are an example of

analogy (convergent evolution).

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of moth species that could
interbreed except that the females' mating pheromones are not attractive to the males of the
other species?

behavioral isolation

Which highly reactive gas was probably absent from the Earth's primitive atmosphere?

O2 (oxygen gas)

The emergence of many diverse species from a common ancestor is called

adaptive radiation.

The biological species concept is

sometimes difficult to put into practice even for present sexual organisms, and useless for
asexual organisms and fossils.

A rabbit population consists of animals that are either very dark on top or very light on top. The
color pattern is not related to sex. No rabbit shows intermediate coloration (medium darkness).
This pattern might result from

disruptive selection.

Speciation, or the formation of new species, is

responsible for the diversity of life.

Imagine that you are studying a very large population of moths that is isolated from gene flow.
A single gene controls wing color. Half of the moths have white-spotted wings (genotype WW
or Ww) and half of the moths have plain brown wings (ww). There are no new mutations,
individuals mate randomly, and there is no natural selection on wing color. How will p, the
frequency of the dominant allele, change over time?

p will neither increase nor decrease; it will remain more or less constant under the
conditions described.

Which of the following represents a pair of homologous structures?

the wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale

The core theme of biology, which explains both the unity and diversity of life, is

evolution.

Which of the following phyla is most closely related to echinoderms?

Chordata

Which of the following disciplines has found evidence for evolution based on the native
distributions (locations) of living species?

biogeography

Which of the following features is unique to chordates?

a notochord

Which of the following best expresses the concept of natural selection?

differential reproductive success based on inherited characteristics

The variation in gene pools between the 30 pupfish populations occurred through an
evolutionary mechanism called

the bottleneck effect.

Which of the following statements represents the most probable explanation for the differences
between pupfish populations?

The isolated populations had restricted gene pools.

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