The Spirit of the Laws
This work by Montesquieu called for a separation of powers and heavily influenced the formation of American government
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed.
South American revolutionary leader who defeated the Spanish in 1819, was made president of Greater Colombia (now Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador), and helped liberate (1823-1834) Peru and Bolivia.
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
king and queen of France were spending much of frances money on themselves not on helping the citizens= citizens uprising= death of king and queen by guilotene
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
a political and social system that no longer governs (especially the system that existed in France before the French Revolution)
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Body of Frenchmen who lead the consuls and conventions to try and restore order to France.
The French legal code fromulated by Napoleon I (r. 1804-1814) in 1804. Also called the Napoleonic Code, it reaffirmed many of the social liberties that had been introduced during the Revolution (1789-99) while at the same time reestablishing a patriarchal system. Property rights, religious liberty, and equal treatment under the law to all classes of men were assured. However, it curtailed many of the rights of women, restricting them to the private sphere of the home and giving males greater authority over them.