The breakup of rock due to exposure to processes that occur at the Earth's surface
When rock is split or broken into smaller pieces of the same material without changing its composition.
when the rock's minerals are changed into different substances.
What is erosion?
The removal and transport of sediment
What is erosion caused by?
rivers and streams, wind, glaciers, ocean waves and currents
Small pieces of rock that are moved and deposited by water, wind, glaciers, and gravity.
When transported sediments are deposited on the ground or sink to the bottom of a body of water. (Settles out in layers with largest on the bottom when carried by water, or sometimes wind)
What is lithification?
The physical and chemical processes that transform sediments into sedimentary rocks.
When mineral growth glues sediment grains together into solid rock.
Horizontal layering due to the way sediment settles out of water or wind.
Bedding in which particle sizes become progressively heavier and coarser toward the bottom layers.
Cross - bedding
Formed as inclined layers of sediment are deposited across a horizontal surface.
When sediment is moved into small ridges by wind, wave action, or river currents.
Sediments that are rounded are generally further from where formed versus pieces with angular edges.
Once buried, a variety of fossil types can form in sedimentary rocks.
What are clastic rocks formed from?
Formed from fragments of other rock. Cemented together when dissolved minerals fill gaps.
Consisting of gravel-sized rock and mineral fragments. Often in mountainous or glacial areas.
Contains sand-sized rock and mineral fragments. Found in stream and river channels, beaches, deserts, etc.
Consisting of silt and clay-sized particles. Found in areas like swamps and ponds.
Form when minerals precipitate out of solution. Called evaporites.
Biochemical (Organic) rocks
Formed from sediments consisting of remains of plants and animals.
Layers and bands of minerals due to high pressure orienting minerals.
Composed mainly of minerals that form with blocky crystal shapes. May contain larger crystals called porphyroblasts.
High vs. Low grade metamorphism
Low temperature and pressure metamorphic rocks have different set of minerals and textures than high T and P metamorphic rocks.
When high temperature and pressure occurs over large areas.
occurs in much smaller, more distinct areas. Due to high T and low P, such as igneous intrusions.
When very hot water reacts with rock and alters its chemical and mineral composition. Can lead to veins of gold, copper, etc.
The Rock Cycle
The repeated series of events by which rock gradually and continually changes from one type to another.