Invention of agriculture.
10,000 B.C.E in Middle East.
Characteristics of civilizations started developing.
Encouraged migration and increased population.
River Valley Civilizations
Near major rivers = water supply for agriculture.
Basic tools, writing, math, and political forms that would persist and spread.
Began in Middle East, most in decline by 1000 B.C.E.
Mesopotamia (Middle East) - Tigris/Euphrates River valley.
Started from scratch.
Progressed from Sumerian accomplishments. Ex: cuneiform, organized city-states, astronomical sciences.
3000 B.C.E along Nile River.
Durable and centralized institutions.
Math achievements, impressive architectural structures, hieroglyphics.
Indus Valley Civilization
2500 B.C.E. along Indus River.
Some large cities like Harappa, which had houses with running water.
Distinct alphabet and artistic forms.
Completely destroyed by the Aryans. (Indo-Europeans)