Residents of a congressional district or state
What are the requirements to be a House member?
At least 25 years old, citizen for at least 7 years
What are the requirements to be a Senate member?
At least 30 years old, citizen for at least 9 years, must be a resident of state elected in
How often are house members re-elected?
Every 2 years
The assigning of congressional seats after census
Drawing district lines to benefit party/group/incumbent
Seat almost certain to be won by current holder
Don't pay postage in their district, can send bulk e-mails, have greater access to media, become better candidates through experience
Additions to bills to get them signed
Having a two house legislature
Powers given in the constitution
What are Congress' enumerated powers?
Power to raise/make/borrow money, regulate commerce, declare war, create courts, create patents and copyrights
Which house in the congress is easier to pass legislation in and why?
The house because they keep stricter control on members and things get done more efficiently
What are the powers of the speaker of the house?
Recognize members to speak, set agenda, appoint members to committees, head the rules committee, punish and reward members
Meeting of members of a party in a legislative chamber to select party leaders and develop party policy
Majority leader in house
Helps plan party strategy, confers with other party leaders, keeps members in line
Inform members, count votes for leadership, ensure max attendance
What does the House rules committee do?
Decides on rules regulating debate and amendments
Prohibits amendments to bills
Permits floor amendments
Who leads the Senate?
The majority leader
President Pro Tempore
Most senior member of majority party
How many members of the Senate are needed to end debate?
When a senator temporarily blocks consideration of a bill or nomination
Preventing action by holding floor continuously
Vote to end debate
Permanent committee focusing on policy area
Committee created for a special purpose
Committee consisting of both senate and house members
Committee used to settle differences between difference versions of a bill
Person with the longest service becomes chair
Official who represents views of their districts
Vote using best judgement
Mutual aid and vote trading between legislators
Provision attached to bill
Bill vetoed when president doesn't sign within 10 days
When the congress overrides the president's veto
What are the three main powers of Congress?
Oversight, funding, making/passing laws
President's right to keep information confidential
Formal order that takes action immediately
President's refusal to spend money appropriated by congress
Line Item Veto
Remove some parts of a law and then sign
Document explaining why a president is passing a law
Who was considered the first modern president and why?
FDR because he expanded the role of the president and created laws that are still in practice
Who is the most loyal assistant to the president?
Chief of Staff
What are the two types of offices in the White House staff?
Political offices and party offices
What type of advisors are the white house office?
What type of advisors are the members of the Executive Office of the president?
Describe the cabinet
15 people that advise the president on a broad spectrum of issues
When was the Congressional Epoch?
When was the Presidential Epoch?
What are the roles of the president?
Party leader, commander in chief, chief executive, chief of state, chief diplomat, chief legislator
What do presidents do as morale builders?
Create a sense of unity and authority, bring out the good, have self confidence
What do presidents do as agenda setters?
Deal with economic, social, and national security policy
What are three reasons the president and congress disagree?
They represent different numbers of people, don't have the same number of terms, and have different types of campaigns
Presidential Support Score
Number of times president wins key votes in congress
Rise in public approval rating following a crisis
What are the two main implied powers of congress?
Oversight and the necessary and proper clause
A form of organization that operates through uniform rules and procedures
Career government employee
What are the 6 characteristics of bureaucracies?
Specialization, centralization, formal rules, standardization, expertise, accountability
What are the 4 weaknesses of bureaucracies?
Jobs so complex they can't be divided, so many leaders employees don't know who to report to, rules hard to enforce because of size, overlap between units
Large, broad, and visible; take up majority of federal dollars
What are the departments closest to the president?
Defense, justice, state & treasury
Independent Regulatory Commissions
Small with a large influence, protect consumers, oversee laws
Outside president's control, work on specific problems; drug enforcement, tobacco
Act like businesses and make money; post office, amtrack
Federal employees who work for government through a competitive selection process
Public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends
Employment based on qualification and experience
Authority given by congress to bureaucracy to use reasonable judgement in implementing laws
Spending required by laws
Police Patrol Oversight
Watch bureaucracy through routine pattern
Fire Alarm Oversight
Find major problem and react
Writ of Certiorari
Formal petition seeking court's review
Avoids payment of court's fees
List of potential cases that reach the supreme court
Rule of 4
At least 4 judges have to be interested in a case
How similar past cases are decided
Bold policy making decisions
Follow founders original intent
Interpret constitution in context of current times
What are some exclusive powers of the Senate?
Making treaties, presidential nominees
What are some exclusive powers of the House?
Revenue and impeachment bills